California Chrome winning the 2014 Preakness Stakes
|Dam||Love the Chase|
|Damsire||Not For Love|
|Foaled||February 18, 2011|
|Breeder||Perry Martin and Steve Coburn|
|Owner||Perry Martin and Steve Coburn|
|Racing colors||Purple, green, donkey on back, green cap|
Triple Crown classic race wins:
Graded stakes wins:
|Last updated on February 11, 2015|
California Chrome (foaled February 18, 2011) is an American Thoroughbred racehorse who won the 2014 Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and was named the 2014 American Horse of the Year. Bred in California, he is a grandson of Pulpit, with two lines in his pedigree to the California-bred 1955 Kentucky Derby winner Swaps. The chestnut-colored horse was named for his flashy white markings, called "chrome" by horse aficionados. As a foal, he was nicknamed "Junior" in honor of his sire, Lucky Pulpit. He is owned by Perry Martin from Yuba City, California, and Steve Coburn of Topaz Lake, Nevada, who named their partnership DAP Racing, standing for "Dumb Ass Partners"—a tongue-in-cheek response to a passerby who questioned their wisdom in purchasing California Chrome's dam, Love the Chase. California Chrome's trainers are the father–son team of Art and Alan Sherman. The colt's first win came in his second race as a two-year-old, but he ran inconsistently until being paired with the jockey Victor Espinoza. The rapport that developed between Espinoza and California Chrome led to a six-win streak that included the San Felipe Stakes and Santa Anita Derby as well as the Kentucky Derby and Preakness.
Coming into the Kentucky Derby, California Chrome was the morning line favorite. Critics downplayed his chances of winning, but these doubts were rebutted when California Chrome won by 1 3⁄4 lengths even though Espinoza eased him for the final 70 yards (64 m) to avoid over-exertion. In his next race, the Preakness, he fended off two strong challengers in the homestretch, won by 1 1⁄2 lengths, and was dubbed "America's Horse". He then shipped to Belmont Park with hopes of winning the Triple Crown in the 2014 Belmont Stakes. In that race, California Chrome was stepped on by the horse next to him at the start, tearing some tissue from his right front heel. With no one aware of his injury until the race was over, he finished fourth in a dead heat with Wicked Strong. After his foot injury healed and a month of pasture rest, he returned to racing in September and ran in the 2014 Breeders' Cup Classic on November 1, 2014, finishing a respectable third, only a neck behind the winner, Bayern. He returned to his winning form in his first start on a turf course in the Hollywood Derby on November 29, becoming the only horse in the United States with Grade I wins in 2014 on both dirt and turf tracks.
As early as the Santa Anita Derby, dedicated fans—soon to be called "Chromies"—actively supported California Chrome, who was called "the people's horse". He won many accolades and awards for his 2014 season: Both chambers of the California State Legislature unanimously passed a resolution recognizing his outstanding performance, and the city of Fresno proclaimed October 11, 2014 as "California Chrome Day". He won the 2014 Secretariat Vox Populi Award, his Kentucky Derby win was awarded the NTRA "Moment of the Year", and he won Eclipse Awards for American Champion Three-Year-Old Male Horse and American Horse of the Year. He began his 2015 season with second-place finishes in the San Antonio Stakes and Dubai World Cup. He then was shipped from Dubai to the United Kingdom and as of May 2014 is stabled at Newmarket. His next race is anticipated to be the Prince of Wales's Stakes at Royal Ascot.
California Chrome was foaled on February 18, 2011, near Coalinga, California, at Harris Farms, the horse breeding division of the Harris Ranch. He is a chestnut with four white stockings[lower-alpha 1] and a blaze.
As a foal, the Martins gave him the nickname "Junior" because of his resemblance to his sire, Lucky Pulpit. Lucky Pulpit had won three races, placed in several graded stakes races, and hit the board in 13 of his 22 starts. However, a viral respiratory infection damaged his breathing and limited him to racing over short distances. California Chrome's dam is Love the Chase, and he was her first foal. She was purchased for $30,000 as a two-year-old by an agent for a horse ownership group called the Blinkers On Racing Stable. As a two- and three-year-old filly, she was nervous and often panicked in the saddling paddock, in effect losing races before she ever got to the starting gate. She ran six times and won on her fourth try in a February 2009 maiden claiming race at Golden Gate Fields. After her win, Steve Coburn and Perry Martin became her owners, ran her two more times, then retired her later that year. They hoped she would become a good broodmare, as she had a promising pedigree. When she retired, it was discovered that she had raced with a breathing problem—an entrapped epiglottis that restricted her air intake, but which could be corrected with surgery. As of 2014, she has given birth to three foals. The other two, both fillies, are full sisters to California Chrome. After California Chrome became a Kentucky Derby contender, Martin and Coburn turned down an offer of $2.1 million for Love the Chase.
California Chrome was bred and is owned by Perry Martin of Yuba City, California, and Steve Coburn of Topaz Lake, Nevada. Their wives, Denise Martin and Carolyn Coburn, are closely involved with the partnership, though they are not listed as owners on official records kept by Equibase. Perry Martin owns a 70% share in the horse and is the managing owner. Originally, the two couples each owned a five percent share in Love the Chase through membership in the Blinkers On Racing Stable. When Blinkers On Racing Stable dissolved the Love the Chase syndicate, both the Coburns and the Martins, who had been shareholders, wanted to buy the filly, so they formed a partnership and paid $8,000 for her. A casual observer, knowing Love the Chase's modest race record, remarked that only a "dumb ass" would buy her, so Coburn and Martin named their racing operation DAP Racing, which stands for "Dumb Ass Partners". They created a caricature of a buck-toothed donkey to adorn the back of their racing silks, and put the initials "DAP" on California Chrome's blinker hood and the left front of the jockey's silks.
The Martins and the Coburns have in common a fondness for California Chrome, but otherwise have very different personalities and backgrounds. The Martins seldom talk to the press. Melissa Hoppert of The New York Times described them as the "quiet thinkers," noting that Perry Martin planned the mating of Lucky Pulpit to Love the Chase, mapped out a "Road to the Derby" racing plan for California Chrome, and promoted use of a nasal strip for the horse's races. Originally from Chicago, they moved to California in 1987, where Perry Martin was employed as a metallurgist by the Air Force and Denise briefly job shadowed a racehorse trainer in the Sacramento area. Today they own and operate Martin Testing Laboratories (MTL), which tests high-reliability items such as automobile airbags and medical equipment.
By contrast, Hoppert characterized the more outgoing Coburns as the "public relations arm" of the partnership. Steve Coburn, characterized by the media as "loquacious", describes himself and his wife Carolyn as "just everyday people". He is a press operator for a company that makes magnetic strips. Carolyn Coburn retired in March 2014 from a career working in payroll in the health care industry. Carolyn introduced Steve to horse racing, and when he was looking for a tax write-off she encouraged him to buy into a racing syndicate instead of purchasing a small airplane.
Harris Farms, where California Chrome was bred, foaled, and lived until the age of two, had previously nurtured champion racehorses such as two-time Breeders' Cup Classic winner Tiznow. In 2009 Love the Chase was bred to a Harris Farms stallion named Redattore, but failed to conceive. She could not go back to him for rebreeding in 2010 because he had been sent to Brazil, so instead she was bred to Lucky Pulpit. CNN reported that the stud fee for the breeding was $2,000.[lower-alpha 2] Steve Coburn said he had a dream three weeks before California Chrome's birth that the foal would be a colt with four white feet and a blaze. California Chrome was relatively large for a newborn horse, weighing 137 pounds (62 kg), and active, "running circles around Momma" within two hours of birth. Love the Chase suffered a uterine laceration while foaling, and was placed on an IV due to internal bleeding. The mare and foal were stall-bound together for over a month. She was kept on a catheter that administered anti-bleeding medication, and the farm staff checked her two to three times a day. Because people gave the colt extra attention and affection when they cared for his dam, he imprinted on humans as well as his mother. As a result, California Chrome became very people-focused, a trait that has served him well in race training.
The Martins and Coburns chose California Chrome's official name in 2013 at Brewsters Bar & Grill in Galt, California, a town halfway between their two homes. Each of the four wrote a potential name on pieces of paper and asked a waitress to draw them out of Coburn's cowboy hat. They submitted the names to The Jockey Club ranked in the order drawn. California Chrome, Coburn's choice, was first drawn, and the registry accepted the name. The word "chrome" comes from slang for a horse with flashy white markings. The colt was started under saddle by Harris Farms' trainer Per Antonsen, who described him as a "smart horse" who was "really nice to work with".
Sherman Training Stables
Perry Martin considered California Chrome a Derby contender even before the colt raced. When the colt was ready to enter race training at age two, he asked Steve Sherman, who had trained horses for Martin at Golden Gate Fields, to recommend a trainer based in the highly competitive southern California area. Steve suggested his father, Art, who had an "old school" reputation for patience with young Thoroughbreds and a small racing stable of about 15 horses, which allowed each animal to be given individualized attention. Art Sherman liked the enthusiasm of Martin and Coburn, but when Martin emailed a "Road to the Kentucky Derby" plan outlining which races California Chrome should run, Sherman was dubious. Later, Sherman's son Alan stated, "[Martin] mapped out a trail for this horse; it's actually worked to a 'T', so it's kinda amazing." Art Sherman downplays his role in training California Chrome, saying "This horse is my California rock star. I'm just his manager."
Sherman's first exposure to a Kentucky Derby horse was in 1955, when at the age of 18 he worked for Rex Ellsworth and was the exercise rider of that year's Kentucky Derby winner Swaps. He was a professional jockey from 1957 until 1979, when he turned to training racehorses. California Chrome was the first Kentucky Derby prospect that Sherman had trained. Art Sherman's assistant is his son, Alan, who is also a licensed trainer. Rather than run a separate stable like his brother Steve, Alan has worked with his father since 1991. He does most of the hands-on day-to-day work with California Chrome and stayed with him throughout his Triple Crown travels when Art returned to California to oversee the rest of the stable.
Unlike many of the high-end California Thoroughbred trainers, who usually are headquartered at Santa Anita Park, the Shermans kept horses at Hollywood Park, but when it closed in December 2013, Los Alamitos Race Course picked up some of the Thoroughbred races and racing trainers who had stabled horses there, including Sherman Training Stables. The success of California Chrome, who was conditioned there over the track that had been recently expanded to accommodate longer races, created good publicity for Los Alamitos.
Observers commented that California Chrome appears to be a very intelligent horse, as he expresses curiosity about everything around him. He has certain idiosyncrasies, including a fondness for one specific brand of horse cookies.[lower-alpha 3] He has a tendency to perform a flehmen response for no obvious reason, particularly when he is being bathed, prompting the press to claim that he is "smiling" for the camera. When being walked in the stable area, he will deliberately stop and put his ears forward to "pose" for cameras when he hears them clicking. As Alan Sherman explained, "He's a ham, he loves the cameras"; and exercise rider Willie Delgado gave him an additional nickname, "Vogue". Besides his frequent flehmen response, he is also noted for having publicly "studdish" behavior in conjunction with winning races, notably in the paddock before the Kentucky Derby and Preakness, and the day after the Hollywood Derby. As Sherman stated, "He's ... a stallion, and he'll let you know it every once in a while." Another unusual behavior is that he will not walk forward out of horse vans designed for a forward exit; he will only back out.
On the track, California Chrome is notable for being able to use tactical speed at nearly any point in a race. Early in California Chrome's career he tended to be slow out of the starting gate; he grew impatient if he had to wait too long for the start and at times expressed anxiety by rocking from side to side, preventing him from being oriented straight forward when the gate opened. He overcame this problem by the end of the 2014 season, and learned to break quickly. He generally does not run well on the inside or in close quarters; two of his worst finishes were in races where he had the number one post position, and his fourth-place performance in the Belmont Stakes was attributed to both his injury at the start and the number two draw. However, when outside and in the clear, he usually wins.
2013: Two-year-old season
California Chrome's first start was in a maiden race at Hollywood Park in April 2013, where he placed second by a length. Three weeks later, he won a maiden race by 2 3⁄4 lengths. In both races, he was ridden by Alberto Delgado. About a month later, California Chrome was entered in the Willard L. Proctor Memorial Stakes. He was one of four horses assigned to carry 120 pounds (54 kg), the highest impost given by the handicapper. Alberto Delgado was out with a broken ankle, so Corey Nakatani was his rider. The colt was second for the first three furlongs but finished fifth in a field of nine. His next two races were at Del Mar racetrack. Delgado returned as his jockey, and California Chrome scored his second career win in the Graduation Stakes, a race limited to California-bred horses, prevailing by 2 3⁄4 lengths. He carried the same eight over the same distance as his previous race, but this time he wore blinkers and ran on the medication Lasix for the first time in his career. Next was his first graded stakes race, the seven-furlong, Grade I Del Mar Futurity. He ran strongly, but finished sixth after he got caught in traffic in a field of 11 horses and was accidentally hit in the face by another jockey's whip. Two months later, California Chrome ran in the Golden State Juvenile Stakes held November 1 at Santa Anita Park, and at 1 mile (1.6 km), was the longest race he had run. He was assigned the number 1 post position and thus had to wait for all the other horses to load. He became anxious, reared in the gate, was last out, struggled throughout the race, and again finished sixth.
Sherman's public assessment of California Chrome's poor performances was that he was still growing and learning how to be a racehorse. But several things began to change. In the fall of 2013, Alberto's younger brother, Willie Delgado, an experienced rider and trainer whose career in Maryland was in the doldrums, moved to California and within a couple of months became the horse's morning exercise rider. At roughly the same time, Alberto was taken off the horse as jockey. In December, California Chrome began wearing a new type of horseshoe. He had developed low heels, and his farrier, Judd Fisher, found that a particular style of glued-on horseshoe with a rim pad that raised a horse's heels was suitable for fixing the problem. The shoe's hard rubber pad that was very durable. Instead of gluing it on, Fisher custom-drilled holes into the shoe so it could be nailed to the horse's feet in the manner of a traditional metal shoe. According to Fisher, nailing on the shoes raised the soles of the horse's feet a little bit farther off the ground. It may have been a contributing factor to California Chrome's subsequent series of wins. Aside from that issue, Sherman described the horse's hooves as generally healthy.
Hollywood Park hosted California Chrome's final race of 2013, the King Glorious Stakes on December 22. He had a lighter impost of 119 pounds (54 kg), a shorter distance of seven furlongs, and a new jockey, Victor Espinoza. California Chrome won the race by 6 1⁄4 lengths, becoming the final stakes winner at Hollywood Park Racetrack, which held its last races that day. Sherman was pleased with Espinoza's riding, and Espinoza was impressed in turn with California Chrome. Alan Sherman later said that it was after this race that he began to think that California Chrome could be a Kentucky Derby contender.
2014: Three-year-old season
California Chrome began 2014 with the California Cup Derby on January 25. Espinoza returned as his jockey. California Chrome was slow coming out of the gate but quickly moved up to third, took the lead coming into the homestretch, and won by 5 1⁄2 lengths. Sherman noted that it was the second consecutive race where the horse pulled clear and won by a decisive margin, stating, "It's like the light bulb has gone on."
California Chrome's first graded stakes win was the March 8 Grade II San Felipe Stakes. Espinoza tried a different riding tactic and let the horse go to the lead right out of the gate. California Chrome led most of the way, and after Espinoza gave him one tap on the shoulder with the whip, the horse pulled away from the field at the top of the homestretch and won by 7 1⁄2 lengths. Alan Sherman said, "My jaw dropped", while Art Sherman joked, "I'm glad I'm training at Los Alamitos, because he looked like a 350 [yard] horse coming out of the gate"; a reference to Quarter Horse racing sprint distances. Espinoza remarked, "I wanted to let him enjoy his race," later adding, "I wanted to see if he [could] go wire to wire ... that was the day I found out how much he loves to run." The San Felipe was California Chrome's first win in a race open to all three-year-olds, not just California-breds, and earned him 50 points in the Road to the Kentucky Derby system.
California Chrome's first Grade I win was the Santa Anita Derby on April 8. California Chrome was at the front of the field by the quarter pole and went on to win the $1 million race by 5 1⁄4 lengths. Prior to the race, his owners had turned down a $6 million offer for a 51% controlling interest in the colt that would have mandated putting the horse with a different trainer. Coburn later explained, "This isn't about the money, this is about the dream."
California Chrome's time of 1:47.52 earned him a Beyer Speed Figure of 107, the fastest for any horse in the Road to the Kentucky Derby's final prep races of 2014. It was also the second fastest time in the history of the Santa Anita Derby; the only horses to run faster were Lucky Debonair, Sham, and Indian Charlie, who hold a three-way tie for the record at 1:47:00. The decisive win made him an early favorite to win the 2014 Kentucky Derby and raised speculation that he had the talent to win the Triple Crown. California Chrome's four consecutive wins had a combined victory margin of 24 1⁄4 lengths. After the Santa Anita Derby, Sherman began to describe the colt as "my Swaps". Of his growing popularity, Denise Martin commented, "He's not just our horse anymore; he's ...the people's horse."
Prior to 2014, only three California-bred horses had won the Kentucky Derby: Morvich in 1922, Swaps in 1955, and Decidedly in 1962. Besides Swaps, the only other horses to win both the Santa Anita Derby and the Kentucky Derby were I'll Have Another, Sunday Silence, Winning Colors, Affirmed, and Majestic Prince. Steve Coburn predicted that the horse was going to win: "I'm not being cocky, just positive", he said.
Prior to the May 3 race, rival trainer Bob Baffert compared California Chrome favorably to War Emblem.[lower-alpha 4] Trainer D. Wayne Lukas, who had no entries in the 2014 Derby, told a reporter that he intended to bet on the horse and commented, "He's looked like the real deal ... I like everything about him." On the other hand, Dallas Stewart, trainer of rival Commanding Curve, dismissed California Chrome's chances due to his pedigree and the supposed lack of competition in his prior races. Others doubted his ability because the colt had never raced outside California. In contrast to the critics, reports surfaced that the owners had turned down a new offer of $10 million.
The colt arrived at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky, on April 28, 2014, and was one of the last Derby contenders to arrive. He was flown in from California, his first time on a plane, and traveled quietly. Once the plane landed, however, his travel idiosyncrasy was discovered by the waiting press when he refused to be unloaded until he was turned around and backed down the ramp; Alan Sherman explained later that this was also his typical manner of egress from ground-based transportation. Upon arrival at Churchill Downs, the horses entered in the Kentucky Derby each were given a special saddle cloth to wear while exercising on the track, identifying them as Derby contenders and including their name. The one given to California Chrome contained a typographical error, with California misspelled as "Califorina". He wore it the first day and then the track management obtained one with the correct spelling. Critics commented that bringing the horse in late and not giving him a full workout on the track was a mistake, but Sherman's strategy was backed by Lukas. In the days leading up to the race, California Chrome galloped on the track, was walked in the saddling paddock, and became familiar with the starting gate. Willie Delgado later remarked that the horse did not particularly like that particular track, saying "he never actually felt comfortable on it."
California Chrome's connections drew post position five for the race. He was the morning line favorite at odds of 5–2. The press suggested that the number five spot, relatively close to the inside rail, could be a problem owing to the "speed horses" that would go to the front early in the race, surrounding him on both sides, especially if the colt was slow out of the gate. Espinoza countered by pointing out that he won the 2002 Kentucky Derby on War Emblem from the same post position.
In the race, California Chrome had a clean start and could have taken the lead, but Espinoza kept him behind two speed horses and only moved him to the front at the final turn when other horses began to tire. In the homestretch, he opened up a lead of five lengths before Espinoza eased him the last 70 yards of the race, narrowing his winning margin to 1 3⁄4 lengths. Sherman later explained that Espinoza slowing the colt down at the finish was "saving something for the next one", a reference to the Preakness Stakes to come two weeks later. The winning time of 2:03.66 was relatively slow for a Kentucky Derby, but Sherman described Espinoza's ride as "picture perfect". This win was Espinoza's second Derby victory, and 77-year-old Sherman became the oldest trainer to ever win the race.[lower-alpha 5]
In a post-race press interview, Sherman said he had visited Swaps' grave at the Kentucky Derby Museum prior to the Derby and prayed for success. Trainer Dale Romans, who had asserted that California Chrome had no chance to win, said, "I was very, very wrong ... We might have just seen a super horse and a super trainer. You don't fake your way to the winner's circle at the Kentucky Derby."
California Chrome shipped on May 12 to Baltimore to run in the 2014 Preakness Stakes on May 17. On the plane were the other two Derby competitors to enter the Preakness: Ride On Curlin and General a Rod. Once on the ground, their van had a police escort from the airport to Pimlico Race Course. When California Chrome arrived at Pimlico, the management at that track welcomed him with two saddlecloths for his workouts, one with the "Califorina" misspelling and the other with the correct spelling; Just as at Churchill Downs, the colt exercised on the Pimlico track but had no timed workouts. Delgado compared the long and narrow Pimlico oval favorably to their home track at Los Alamitos. Sherman did not like that the horse had to race again with only a two-week break, but was confident because California Chrome had gained back weight he had lost running the Derby, plus another 35 pounds (16 kg).
News stories continued to question the colt's ability, noting the relatively slow pace of the Derby and the low Beyer Speed Figure of 97 earned by California Chrome in his win. One trainer said, "California Chrome has to prove again he's the best 3-year-old." The horse was assigned the number three post position in a field of ten horses, and was the morning line odds-on favorite at 3–5. Followers noted that Secretariat had also run the 1973 Preakness Stakes from the number three post. The Thursday before the race, California Chrome was observed coughing four times after his morning gallop, prompting speculation about his health. He had a small blister in his throat, which he also had prior to the Kentucky Derby, both times treated with a glycerine throat wash. The intense press attention paid to the relatively minor issue was dismissively dubbed "throat-gate" by sportswriter Bill Dwyre of the Los Angeles Times.
On race day, California Chrome made a clean start from the gate, was close to the front through the backstretch, made his bid for the lead at the far turn, and was first by the top of the stretch. The second-place finisher was Ride on Curlin, who made a strong move late in the race to finish 1 1⁄2 lengths behind California Chrome. Both held off a challenge from Social Inclusion, who tired and finished third. General a Rod was fourth. The winning time was 1:54:84, earning a Beyer Speed Figure of 105. Social Inclusion's owner, Ron Sanchez, said, "He's the real deal ... My horse came to challenge him, but he found another engine. He was gone." Espinoza's ride was described as "flawless", and the press noted the special affinity between the horse and jockey.
The press considered the Preakness to be the horse's strongest victory to date. Baffert, who had won the first two legs of the Triple Crown with Silver Charm (1997), Real Quiet (1998), and War Emblem (2002), sent three different horses against California Chrome, and after Bayern had finished second to last in the Preakness, said, "I'm done chasing him," adding, "he's super the real deal." In post-race interviews, Coburn stated that California Chrome had become "America's Horse". California Chrome became the only California-bred horse ever to win both the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness.
The day after the Preakness, a new round of press excitement, dubbed "nasalgate", erupted when Sherman commented that Martin might not let California Chrome run in the Belmont Stakes if the New York Racing Association (NYRA) did not allow the horse to wear a nasal strip as he had in his previous six races.[lower-alpha 6] Nasal strips are not considered performance-enhancing, but may reduce airway resistance, lower the risk of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), and aid post-race recovery. Sherman submitted a formal request for permission to use them, and the following day, the NYRA approved the use of nasal strips for all horses on New York tracks, thus resolving the matter.
California Chrome shipped to New York on May 20 in a semi-trailer horse van together with Ride On Curlin. They had a police escort through New York City from the Throgs Neck Bridge to Belmont Park. The press reported that Art Sherman believed the misspelled saddle cloths at the Derby and Preakness were a good luck charm, and that he specifically asked Belmont Park for another misspelled cloth along with a properly spelled version. The first week California Chrome spent at the Belmont track was generally uneventful, other than galloping past an opossum that wandered onto the track the morning of May 23. The horse paid little attention to it, but the press pounced on the story; the animal was labeled "Dumb-Ass Possum", and someone created a Twitter account for the creature. California Chrome galloped daily and Delgado commented, "I can tell you he loves this track, and I don't see him (having) any problem getting a mile and a half." On May 31, Espinoza arrived to give the colt a short workout known as a "breeze". Horse and jockey were greeted by a large contingent of fans and press at about 6:30 a.m., and ran a "sharp" half-mile (0.80 km) officially clocked at 47.69 seconds. A clocker for the Daily Racing Form stated, "He's going to be tough to beat. I think we're going to have a Triple Crown winner."
Eleven horses entered the Belmont Stakes on June 7, and California Chrome drew post position 2, the same post position as Secretariat in the 1973 Belmont. Ride On Curlin and General a Rod also entered; they were the only other horses besides California Chrome to contest all three legs of the Triple Crown. Four entries had run in Kentucky Derby but skipped the Preakness, and there were four "New Shooters" who had not run in either of the previous Triple Crown races, including Tonalist and Matterhorn, who each wound up playing a major role in the race. Anticipating the possibility of a Triple Crown champion, several people connected to the last three Triple Crown winners came to the Belmont, including 92-year-old Penny Chenery, owner of Secretariat; Patrice Wolfson, who co-owned Affirmed; and some of Seattle Slew's connections—trainer Billy Turner and co-owner Jim Hill. The jockeys of the three past Triple Crown winners, Steve Cauthen, Jean Cruguet, and Ron Turcotte, also addended. Cauthen, jockey of Affirmed, stated, "This horse has got a great chance of pulling it off," but added, "you never know, that's why they have to run the race."
On race day California Chrome did not break boldly. Espinoza later explained something felt "off" and he held the horse back a bit instead of going to the lead. When asked to move to the front, the horse did not unleash his usual burst of speed. Immediately following the race, Espinoza said "He was just a little bit empty today". Tonalist won the race, and California Chrome finished fourth in a dead heat with Wicked Strong. Initial post-race analysts criticized Espinoza for not taking the horse to the front early on, but noticed that California Chrome had had some blood on his right front heel. After the race, review of photos taken at the start showed that the horse next to him, Matterhorn, moved too far to the left and stepped on California Chrome's heel as both horses broke from the gate. As a result, California Chrome had run the race with a "chunk" of tissue taken out of his right front heel and a small cut on his tendon. The tendon injury was superficial, but the heel injury may have been a factor in his loss. Sherman explained that he knew that something was not right when he saw the horse throw his head up in the homestretch, and speculated later that the sand and dirt of the racetrack caused pain in the open wound. The following day, Sherman assured the press that both injuries would heal.
Coburn generated controversy after the race, when he said the current Triple Crown system allowed "the coward's way out" because fresh horses who had not run in the Kentucky Derby or Preakness Stakes could challenge horses who contested all three legs. Sherman downplayed the outburst, saying, "[Coburn] was at the heat of the moment ... Sometimes the emotions get in front of you." Two days later, Coburn apologized, saying he wanted to congratulate the owners of Tonalist and adding, "I wanted so much for [California Chrome] to win the Triple Crown for the people of America." Steve Haskin of Blood-Horse magazine summarized the race stating, "when I think back ... the one image that will last forever will be of an exhausted colt walking back through the tunnel with a bloodstained foot, his head down and breathing hard, and every vein protruding from his sweat-soaked body. He had given every ounce of himself, and with it all, still was beaten only 1 3⁄4 lengths."
California Chrome returned to Los Alamitos, where Sherman's crew treated the wound for about 10 days. After that, they sent California Chrome to Harris Farms where he was turned out on pasture. By early July, his foot was fully healed, he had gained weight, and Sherman was pleased enough with his recovery that he brought the colt back to Los Alamitos to resume training on July 17, two weeks earlier than anticipated.
Remainder of 2014 season
California Chrome was the top-ranked three-year-old in the nation by the NTRA in its post-race poll of June 9, 2014, in spite of his Belmont loss, and was fifth-ranked among American horses of all ages. In the June 12 World's Best Racehorse Rankings, published by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities, he was ranked fifth in the world, one point behind the only American-based horse rated higher, Santa Anita Handicap winner Game On Dude, who was tied for third.
California Chrome raced next in the September 20 Pennsylvania Derby at Parx Racing. He was the favorite, but drew the inside number 1 post position. Kentucky Derby rivals Candy Boy and Tapiture also entered. Bayern, who had a poor performance in the Preakness Stakes but later won the Haskell Invitational, was the second favorite. Parx provided significant financial incentives to any horse entering who previously won a triple crown race or other selected Grade I races, so California Chrome's connections earned $200,000 simply for having him start. Trapped on the rail, first by a speed horse in the initial stages of the race, and again on the far turn by a challenger who faded in the stretch, California Chrome was unable to gain momentum and finished sixth. Bayern had a clean trip, leading wire to wire, and won by 5 3⁄4 lengths. Espinoza explained, "I never really had a chance to let him run the way he had been running."
The next race was the Breeders' Cup Classic on November 1. Because many leading older horses retired in 2014, most of the main contenders for the 2014 Classic were the three year olds: in addition to California Chrome, former foes Bayern, Candy Boy and Tonalist entered. His chief rival was considered to be the then-undefeated American Champion Two-Year-Old Colt, Shared Belief, a gelding who missed the Triple Crown series due to hoof problems; the two had never faced each other. California Chrome was 4-1 on the morning line, second favorite to Shared Belief. In the race, Bayern bumped into Shared Belief at the start, then took the lead for the duration of the race. California Chrome was clear of traffic, maintained third place for most of the race, was closing at the end, and finished a very close third, only a neck behind winner Bayern, who won by a nose over second-place finisher Toast of New York. Shared Belief was fourth. Post race analysis noted that California Chrome stayed on the outside throughout the race, and actually ran 44 feet farther than the winner. Sherman spoke in positive terms of the horse's finish, stating "My horse ran his eyeballs out. He was right there, right down to the money. I thought it was a great effort. He came back strong."  Espinoza was less enthusiastic: "On the backstretch I thought I had a chance to win... The last sixteenth [California Chrome] was digging as hard as he could, but getting just a little tired. I wish he had one more race. It was a little too much for him today." Coburn visited the colt the following day and stated, "He was full of himself. I think he thought he won. And if the race had been just a little bit longer, I believe he would have."
Later in the month California Chrome shipped to Del Mar, and following workouts on the turf course Sherman entered him in the Hollywood Derby on November 29. It was his first start on a grass race track. Sherman had multiple reasons for moving the horse to a different surface; he believed that California Chrome would do well running on grass, and it also would open up a variety of potential races to enter in 2015. He was the morning line favorite, with his toughest competitor viewed as Lexie Lou, a filly who defeated colts to win Canada's equivalent of the Kentucky Derby, the Queen's Plate. Taking the lead at the break, California Chrome settled into second along the backstretch. Making his bid for the lead at the top of the homestretch, he won handily by two lengths and the Canadian filly was second. With the win, California Chrome earned four Grade I wins for the year, and was the only horse in the United States to have Grade I wins in 2014 on both dirt and turf tracks. Espinoza summed up the race by saying, "he's back."
2015: Four-year-old season
California Chrome began his 2015 four-year-old season with a prep race at Santa Anita in the San Antonio Stakes on February 7, anticipated as a return matchup with Shared Belief, whose traffic problems in the Classic failed to present a true match against California Chrome. Art Sherman and Shared Belief's trainer, Jerry Hollendorfer, are longtime friends and rivals from the Northern California racing circuit and both men anticipated the rivalry between their two horses. Said Sherman, "I just want both of us to be at the head of the stretch with no excuses and then it's who gets to the wire first." Shared Belief went off as the favorite and although California Chrome took the lead by the 3⁄4 pole, Shared Belief edged him in the final sixteenth and won, with California Chrome second by a length and a half. California Chrome next shipped to Meydan Racecourse for his first international start in the Dubai World Cup on March 28, where he needed to run at night under artificial lighting and without Lasix. He went off as the favorite, but finished second to the Irish-bred longshot Prince Bishop, who was trained by Saeed bin Suroor and owned by Hamdan bin Mohammed Al Maktoum of Godolphin Racing. Sherman noted that his horse ran wide on the turns, but said, "He tried every inch of the way. There's nothing wrong with finishing second in this type of a race." After the Dubai World Cup, California Chrome was shipped to Rae Guest's Newmarket stables in preparation for Royal Ascot week in June. His likely target at Royal Ascot will be the Prince of Wales's Stakes.
Awards and honors
California Chrome won many honors for his accomplishments in 2014. A concurrent resolution was introduced in the California State Assembly recognizing the "outstanding performance of California Chrome" and all of his connections including not only his owners and trainers, but also Willie Delgado and groom Raul Rodriguez. The resolution passed both chambers of the legislature unanimously on August 14. It was the first time that the California Legislature had honored a racehorse. The city of Fresno proclaimed October 11, 2014 as "California Chrome Day". in March 2015, the Los Angeles Sports Council ranked California Chrome's Kentucky Derby and Preakness wins third at the LA Sports Awards' Sports Moment of 2014, behind only the Los Angeles Kings Stanley Cup win and Clayton Kershaw's Cy Young and National League MVP Awards.
|“||"WHEREAS, California Chrome, a chestnut-colored horse as golden as his home state, transcended thoroughbred horse racing to become an international phenomenon not just with his brilliant speed and winning ways, but due to his heart-warming story and the people who make up his team." —Assembly Concurrent Resolution 161, California State Legislature, August 14, 2014||”|
California Chrome won the Secretariat Vox Populi Award given each year to recognize "the horse whose popularity and racing excellence best resounded with the American public and gained recognition for Thoroughbred racing." His Kentucky Derby win was named the NTRA "Moment of the Year". At the Eclipse Awards, he was named American Horse of the Year and American Champion Three-Year-Old Male Horse. He is the second California-bred to win Horse of the Year, the first since Tiznow, the first three-year-old to be Horse of the Year since Rachel Alexandra, and the first Kentucky Derby winner since Charismatic. The California Thoroughbred Breeders' Association gave California Chrome and his connections multiple honors, naming him the 2014 California-bred Horse of the Year, Champion Cal-bred Three-Year-Old and Turf Champion. Lucky Pulpit was named Champion Sire, Love the Chase was Champion Broodmare, Martin and Coburn were named Champion Breeders, and Sherman was named Trainer of the year.
Fans and publicity
An enthusiastic fan base supporting California Chrome became visible at the Santa Anita Derby, when someone invited the horse's supporters to join the owners in the winner's circle and over 100 people crammed into the area, including one woman dressed entirely in metallic foil. Coburn told CNN about a supporter who had a jackass tattooed on his shoulder. An unofficial Twitter account for the horse, @CalChrome, was started by a 37-year-old fan from Florida, Shawn LaFata, that had over 12,000 followers by Belmont week. The New York Times noted the enthusiasm of the fans, who used the hashtag #Chromies on Twitter. LaFata believes the word "Chromies" first appeared on @CalChrome eight nights before the Kentucky Derby. The humble origins of the horse and the people around him played a role in his popularity, as did the horse's people-focused attitude. Supporters appeared to be further motivated by the continuing doubts raised by industry experts about California Chrome's ability.
The horse had nationwide appeal, but California Chrome's core fan base was centered in the Central Valley of California; the Sacramento television market ranked sixth in the nation for television viewership on Preakness day, and third in the nation on Belmont day. Prior to the Belmont, country music singer–songwriter team Templeton Thompson and Sam Gay wrote and recorded a song titled "Bring it on Home, Chrome" and a rap video featuring a group of elementary school children singing about the horse was released on YouTube. Even after his Belmont loss, Harris Farms fielded many calls every day from fans wanting to visit the horse while he had a break from racing in June and July 2014. In contrast to his admirers, California Chrome's image was somewhat diminished by the criticism that followed Coburn's post-Belmont comments. Additional negative press occurred when Martin turned down an offer to bring California Chrome to parade in the paddock at Del Mar on the day of the Pacific Classic, and when Espinoza was suspended for seven days for race interference when riding another horse against Shared Belief. NPR's Frank Deford had little patience with the horse's story exemplifying the American dream; DeFord felt that the horse's victories would have little impact on the popularity of horse racing, which he viewed as "a sport that is struggling against time and culture" due to the prevalence of other types of gambling and the reduced impact of horses in the daily lives of most people.
Overall, the press the horse received was viewed as giving a needed boost to the sport. Jockey and sports analyst Gary Stevens noted prior to the Belmont, "I haven't heard Thoroughbred horse racing mentioned on CNN for a long time, and it was right at the top of the hour ... He's brought us mainstream again for the first time in a lot of years." Post-Belmont press analysis contended that California Chrome was the most popular Thoroughbred in America since Zenyatta. In December, when the horse was selected as the winner of the Secretariat Vox Populi Award, Coburn said, "We have always said Chrome is the 'People's Horse' and we are thrilled that the public feels the same way we do about him." In announcing the Moment of the Year, Keith Chamblin of NTRA stated, "the fans reminded us that nothing trumps an awesome performance by a legendary horse."
Commercial sponsorship deals were part of California Chrome's Triple Crown saga. Prior to the 2014 Belmont Stakes, California Chrome's owners filed a patent application to trademark his name for use on athletic apparel, and hired two talent agencies to help with marketing and sponsorships. Following the "nasalgate" story, fans began to appear wearing human nasal strips or purple band-aids across their noses. Working with the intellectual property attorney who had brokered deals for Smarty Jones, California Chrome's owners gained an endorsement deal with GlaxoSmithKline, manufacturer of the human Breathe Right nasal strips. On Belmont day, GlaxoSmithKline gave away 50,000 of the strips at Belmont Park. Santa Anita, which simulcast the race, ran its own promotion, giving fans at that track purple nasal strips with the word "Chrome" on the front. On June 2, the Skechers shoe company announced a sponsorship deal where the company's logo appeared on assorted items worn by the horse and his handlers, and the company used California Chrome's image in its marketing. Skechers ran a half page ad in the Wall Street Journal at the end of June, congratulating the horse on his success.
|Apr 26, 2013||2||4 1⁄2 furlongs||Maiden Special Weight||Maiden||Hollywood Park||6.90||0:52:47||9||2||length1||Delgado, AlbertoAlberto Delgado||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|May 17, 2013||2||4 1⁄2 furlongs||Maiden Special Weight||Maiden||Hollywood Park||1.20||0:52:42||9||1||2 3⁄4 lengths||Delgado, AlbertoAlberto Delgado||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Jun 15, 2013||2||5 1⁄2 furlongs||Willard L. Proctor Memorial Stakes||Listed Stakes||Hollywood Park||5.10||NA||9||5||NA||Nakatani, CoreyCorey Nakatani||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Jul 31, 2013||2||5 1⁄2 furlongs||Graduation Stakes||Listed Stakes||Del Mar racetrack||6.20||1:03:48||7||1||2 3⁄4 lengths||Delgado, AlbertoAlberto Delgado||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Sep 4, 2013||2||furlongs7||Del Mar Futurity||I||Del Mar racetrack||5.70||NA||11||6||NA||Delgado, AlbertoAlberto Delgado||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Nov 1, 2013||2||furlongs8||Golden State Juvenile Stakes||Listed Stakes||Santa Anita Park||3.20||NA||9||6||NA||Delgado, AlbertoAlberto Delgado||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Dec 22, 2013||2||furlongs7||King Glorious Stakes||Listed Stakes||Hollywood Park||2.20||1:22:12||10||1||6 1⁄4 lengths||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Jan 25, 2014||3||8 1⁄2 furlongs||California Cup Derby||Listed Stakes||Santa Anita Park||2.50||1:43:22||10||1||5 1⁄2 lengths||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Mar 8, 2014||3||8 1⁄2 furlongs||San Felipe Stakes||II||Santa Anita Park||1.40||1:40:59||7||1||7 1⁄2 lengths||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Apr 5, 2014||3||furlongs9||Santa Anita Derby||I||Santa Anita Park||0.70||1:47:52||8||1||5 1⁄4 lengths||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|May 3, 2014||3||furlongs10||Kentucky Derby||I||Churchill Downs||2.50||2:03:66||19||1||1 3⁄4 lengths||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|May 17, 2014||3||9 1⁄2 furlongs||Preakness Stakes||I||Pimlico||0.50||1:54.84||10||1||1 1⁄2 lengths||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Jun 7, 2014||3||furlongs12||Belmont Stakes||I||Belmont Park||0.85||NA||11|| 4
|NA||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Sep 20, 2014||3||furlongs9||Pennsylvania Derby||II||Parx Racing||0.90||NA||8||6||NA||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Nov 1, 2014||3||furlongs10||Breeders' Cup Classic||I||Santa Anita Park||4.40||1:59:88||14||3||NA||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Nov 29, 2014||3||furlongs9||Hollywood Derby||I||Del Mar racetrack||0.70||1:47:88||6||1||lengths2||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Feb 7, 2015||4||furlongs9||San Antonio Stakes||II||Santa Anita Park||1.40||NA||8||2||1 1⁄2 lengths||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|Mar 28, 2015||4|| 2,000 meters (1 1⁄4 mi)
|Dubai World Cup||I||Meydan Racecourse||2.25||2:03:24||9||2||2 3⁄4 lengths||Espinoza, VictorVictor Espinoza||Art Sherman||Martin & Coburn|||
|8 1⁄2||1 1⁄16||1,710|
|9 1⁄2||1 3⁄16||1,911|
|12||1 1⁄2|| 2,414
California Chrome's sire, Lucky Pulpit, and his dam, Love the Chase, both had relatively undistinguished racing careers. Many of their ancestors were successful on the track, however, and some were well known for stamina over distance. Lucky Pulpit was sired by Pulpit, who is credited with 63 stakes winners and particularly known for his son Tapit. 1992 Belmont Stakes and Breeders' Cup Classic winner A. P. Indy is the sire of Pulpit. The sire line of these stallions traces to Bold Ruler, considered one of the greatest North American sires of the 20th century, and ultimately to the Darley Arabian through Eclipse. A. P. Indy was by 1977 Triple Crown winner Seattle Slew, and is a grandson of Secretariat on his dam's side, bringing a second cross to Bold Ruler into the pedigree. Pulpit is a grandson of Mr. Prospector on his dam's side, a line believed to cross well with Seattle Slew's breeding. Pulpit's maternal granddam, Narrate, carries lines to Bold Ruler and to 1964 Kentucky Derby winner Northern Dancer. Lucky Pulpit's dam, Lucky Soph, is a half-sister to the dam of Unbridled's Song and also a granddaughter of Caro, who sired 1988 Kentucky Derby winner Winning Colors. Princequillo, who was noted for his stamina, appears several times in Lucky Pulpit's pedigree.
Love the Chase comes from old and respected pedigree lines. Her sire, Not for Love, was by Mr. Prospector and out of a daughter of Northern Dancer. Northern Dancer appears again on the distaff side of Love the Chase's pedigree. Her granddam, Chase the Dream, was sired by the 1968 Epsom Derby winner Sir Ivor. Vaguely Noble, winner of the 1968 Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, is one of Chase the Dream's grandsires. She traces to Princequillo and to the UK-bred Ribot, viewed by some as the greatest racehorse of his generation. Love the Chase has two crosses to the mare Numbered Account, who produced several Grade I stakes winners and was the American Champion Two-Year-Old Filly in 1971. Numbered Account was a daughter of Buckpasser, who earned five Eclipse Awards between 1965 and 1967, and was inducted to the Horse Racing Hall of Fame in 1970. The Buckpasser line has been considered another good bloodline to crossbreed with descendants of Seattle Slew. Numbered Account was also a granddaughter of Swaps, and traces to La Troienne and War Admiral on both sides of her pedigree. Love the Chase's tail-female line is one of the oldest in North America. Through a mare named Selima, foaled in 1745, who was by the Godolphin Arabian and imported to the Province of Maryland between 1750 and 1752. The line ultimately traces to Thoroughbred family 21, which began with the Moonah Barb Mare, who was imported from Barbary to England in utero about 1700.
California Chrome has relatively little inbreeding; he is 4 × 3 to Mr Prospector, meaning that this ancestor appears once in the third and once in the fourth generations of his pedigree. He is also 4 × 4 to Numbered Account and 4 × 5 to Northern Dancer.
Lucky Pulpit (US)
|A.P. Indy||Seattle Slew|
|Lucky Soph (US)
|Ride The Trails|
|Lucky Spell||Lucky Mel|
Love the Chase (US)
|Not For Love (US)
|Mr Prospector||Raise A Native|
|Dance Number||Northern Dancer|
|Chase It Down (US)
|Chase The Dream||Sir Ivor|
|La Belle Fleur (Family 21)|
- indicates inbreeding
- ↑ The shorter marking on his left front leg is technically a partial stocking, as the high white only extends up the back half of the leg.
- ↑ Prior to the beginning of the 2014 breeding season, Lucky Pulpit had a published stud fee of $2,500, considered quite low in the world of Thoroughbred horse breeding. After the success of California Chrome in 2014, Lucky Pulpit's stud fee was raised to $10,000.
- ↑ The cookies are an oat-based treat called Mrs. Pasture's horse cookies. The horse also likes carrots, and eats normal equine meals of hay and grain.
- ↑ Baffert trained War Emblem to win the 2002 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes with Espinoza as jockey.
- ↑ Prior to Sherman, Charlie Whittingham held the record when at age 76 he trained Sunday Silence to win the 1989 Kentucky Derby.
- ↑ Prior to the 2012 Belmont Stakes, the NYRA stewards had refused to allow I'll Have Another to wear one. The issue was of no actual impact in 2012 because I'll Have Another pulled out the day before the race due to injury.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 "California Chrome". Kentuckyderby.com. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Staff. "California Chrome (CA)". Equibase. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "California Chrome is Vox Populi Award Winner". Blood-Horse. December 26, 2014. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Arrington, Debbie (April 4, 2014). "Local horse California Chrome a favorite to win Santa Anita Derby before Run for the Roses". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Rees, Jennie (April 5, 2014). "California Chrome a big draw for Los Alamitos track". Courier-Journal. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Arrington, Debbie (April 20, 2014). "Derby horse takes his Yuba City owners on ride of a lifetime". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- ↑ Staff. "Harris Farms 2014 Stallions". Harris Farms. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ HRTV1June, 6:07.
- ↑ "Lucky Pulpit". Equibase. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- ↑ Rees, Jennie (May 2, 2014). "California Chrome sire Lucky Pulpit unlucky on track". Courier-Journal. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Arrington, Debbie (April 6, 2014). "California Chrome Ready to Crunch KY Derby". Blood-Horse. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Layden, Tim (April 28, 2014). "California Chrome: The Accidental Favorite". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on July 21, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Love the Chase". Equibase. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ Rush, Bonnie R. (January 2014). "Epiglottic Entrapment in Horses". Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Murray, Chris (May 21, 2014). "10 things you might not know about California Chrome". Courier-Journal. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Angeli, Burt (April 19, 2014). "Kentucky Derby bound". Iron Mountain Daily News. Retrieved April 20, 2014.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 Dwyre, Bill (April 5, 2014). "California Chrome a down-home Derby favorite". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 Brisnet.com (April 6, 2014). "California Chrome basks in limelight". Kentucky Derby Racing News. Kentuckyderby.com. Retrieved April 10, 2014.
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Scoby, Ashley (May 1, 2014). "Winner's Circle of Friends". ESPNW. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 20.2 Finley, Patrick (June 5, 2014). "Chicagoan California Chrome co-owners fine in background". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- ↑ "Martin Testing Laboratories". Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- ↑ Harris, Beth (April 30, 2014). "Kentucky Derby: California Chrome a colt nearly 6 decades in making for Art Sherman (Corrected version)". Washington Times. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Brisnet.com (May 17, 2014). "California Chrome Two-Thirds of the Way to Triple Crown". NBC Sports. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- ↑ Hoppert, Melissa (June 6, 2014). "California Chrome's Crew". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2014.
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Layden, Tim (May 4, 2014). "The victory of California Chrome and the magic of the Derby". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Harris, Beth (May 4, 2014). "California Chrome, trainer Art Sherman gear up for Preakness after Derby win". Washington Times. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- ↑ Zieralski, Ed (April 2, 2014). "California Chrome has the shine of a Derby champ". U-T San Diego. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- ↑ Rees, Jennie (May 12, 2014). "California Chrome's fan club proud of Derby win". Courier-Journal. Retrieved May 13, 2014.
- ↑ Rees, Jennie (May 12, 2014). "California Chrome's success has Harris Farms fingerprints". USA Today. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 30.2 Majendie, Matt (May 2, 2014). "Kentucky Derby: Favorite California Chrome is racing on a rock star's dream". CNN. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- ↑ "Lucky Pulpit" (PDF). California Thoroughbred 2014 Stallion Directory. CTBA. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Arrenquin, Andy (April 30, 2014). "Yuba City couple's colt favorite to win Kentucky Derby". Appeal-Democrat. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- ↑ Grantland, 5:00.
- ↑ Schwartz, Ian (May 7, 2014). "California Chrome's Owners Back In Yuba City, Ready To Continue Horse's Success". CBS Sacramento. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 Shinar, Jack (May 3, 2014). "California Chrome Was Flashy From the Start". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
- ↑ HRTV1June, 24:34.
- ↑ Layden, Tim (May 30, 2014). "California Chrome's quest for the Triple Crown". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- ↑ Gardner, Sam (May 21, 2014). "How a waitress came to pull California Chrome's name out of a hat". Fox Sports. Retrieved May 24, 2014.
- ↑ Yurong, Dale (May 2, 2014). "Valley horse rates as favorite to win Kentucky Derby". KFSN-TV, abc30.com. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- ↑ Staff (2014). "Team Members". Harris Farms. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- ↑ LaCava, Tony (May 10, 2014). "California Chrome takes owners with Kern ties on wild ride". Bakersfield Californian. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- ↑ Gardner, Sam (May 9, 2014). "California Chrome turns Mother's Day into a bed of roses for Faye Sherman". Fox Sports. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- ↑ Garder, Sam (April 16, 2014). "It's a lock: California Chrome's owner guarantees Kentucky Derby win". Fox Sports. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- ↑ Novak, Claire (May 2, 2014). "Kentucky Derby Preview: Bring it Home, Chrome". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
- ↑ HRRN, 6:48.
- ↑ "Kentucky Derby: California Chrome's bid takes trainer back in time". Chicago Tribune. May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- ↑ "Art Sherman". Equibase. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- ↑ HRRN, 7:42.
- ↑ Hoppert, Melissa (May 24, 2014). "In a Father's Footsteps, Chasing a Triple Crown". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- ↑ "Trainers". Santa Anita Park. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- ↑ KD140, 0:35.
- ↑ 52.0 52.1 52.2 Howard, Johnette (June 6, 2014). "Who is California Chrome?". ESPN New York. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- ↑ 53.0 53.1 Wincze Hughes, Alicia (May 12, 2012). "One brother's joy another's regret on California Chrome's road to a Triple Crown". Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- ↑ 54.0 54.1 54.2 Hovdey, Jay (July 10, 2014). "Hovdey: California Chrome up for some down time". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
- ↑ Haskins, Kendrick (May 9, 2014). "Derby Winner Loves to Smile". WAVE3 News. WorldNow. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- ↑ 56.0 56.1 Clark, Liz (May 16, 2014). "Preakness Stakes: California Chrome trainer Art Sherman, 77, is on ride of a lifetime". Washington Post. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- ↑ 57.0 57.1 57.2 Privman, Jay (November 30, 2014). "California Chrome in fine shape after winning turf debut". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved December 1, 2014.
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 Novak, Claire (April 28, 2014). "California Chrome arrives". ESPN. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- ↑ 59.0 59.1 Strassburger, John (December 2, 2014). "California Chrome—Simply Awesome". Horse Journal. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 Sullivan, Tim (May 15, 2014). "First 70 yards foremost in Sherman's mind". Courier-Journal. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- ↑ Drape, Joe (September 20, 2014). "In Pennsylvania Derby, a Record Run Upstages the Return of California Chrome". New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
- ↑ 62.0 62.1 Haskin, Steve (September 22, 2014). "Shared Belief Needs to be Awesome...Again". Blood-Horse. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
- ↑ 63.0 63.1 "Betfair Hollywood Park – April 26, 2013 – Race 2" (PDF). Equibase. April 26, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 64.0 64.1 "Betfair Hollywood Park – May 17, 2013 – Race 8" (PDF). Equibase. May 17, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 65.0 65.1 65.2 "Betfair Hollywood Park – June 15, 2013 – Race 8" (PDF). Equibase. June 15, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ HRTV1June, 1:30.
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 67.2 "Del Mar – July 31, 2013 – Race 7" (PDF). Equibase. July 31, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 68.0 68.1 68.2 Andersen, Steve (December 22, 2013). "Hollywood Park: California Chrome dominates King Glorious Stakes". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- ↑ 69.0 69.1 "Del Mar – August 25, 2013 – Race 8" (PDF). Equibase. August 25, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 70.0 70.1 70.2 Layden, Tim (June 3, 2014). "History Walks By: The story of California Chrome". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- ↑ "Historical Charts for Santa Anita Park, November 1, 2013". Equibase. November 1, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 72.0 72.1 72.2 "Santa Anita Park – November 1, 2013 – Race 3" (PDF). Equibase. November 1, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 Wieber, Aubrey (May 29, 2014). "Shod For Success". Post-Register. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- ↑ 74.0 74.1 74.2 Privman, Jay (May 16, 2014). "Special shoes keep California Chrome's feet comfy". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- ↑ Novak, Claire (May 30, 2014). "'Chrome' Gets New Shoes, Set for Belmont Work". Blood-Horse. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- ↑ Manahan, Kevin (May 30, 2014). "Belmont Stakes 2014: California Chrome to get new shoes for Triple Crown bid". NJ.com. Retrieved May 30, 2014.
- ↑ Hoppert, Melissa (May 23, 2014). "And ... They're Off (Fingers Crossed)". The New York Times. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- ↑ 78.0 78.1 78.2 "Betfair Hollywood Park – December 22, 2013 – Race 10" (PDF). Equibase. December 22, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ staff (December 23, 2013). "Hollywood Park closes after 75 years". USA Today. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ HRRN, 5:31.
- ↑ 81.0 81.1 "Santa Anita Park – January 25, 2014 – Race 10" (PDF). Equibase. January 25, 2014. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ Jay Privman (January 25, 2014). "Santa Anita: California Chrome enters Kentucky Derby picture with big Cal Cup Derby win". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- ↑ 83.0 83.1 83.2 "Santa Anita Park – March 8, 2014 – Race 5" (PDF). Equibase. March 8, 2014. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ 84.0 84.1 84.2 Jack Shinar (March 8, 2014). "California Chrome Shines Again in San Felipe". Blood-Horse. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- ↑ HRRN, 3:15.
- ↑ HRTV1June, 9:50.
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- ↑ 88.0 88.1 88.2 88.3 "Santa Anita Park- April 5, 2014 – Race 8" (PDF). Equibase. April 5, 2014. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- ↑ HRTV19Mar, 2:41.
- ↑ Watchmaker, Mike (April 19, 2014). "Grading the Final Derby Preps". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- ↑ Clay, John (April 12, 2014). "Derby picture clears up as Dance With Fate steps out". Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- ↑ Wilson, Art (April 6, 2011). "Factually speaking, Santa Anita Derby is rich in history". San Gabriel Valley Tribune. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
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- ↑ Staff (April 6, 2014). "California Chrome dazzles in Santa Anita Derby". Brisnet. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
- ↑ Hoppert, Melissa (April 27, 2014). "Two Horses, 59 Years Apart, Inspire One Trainer Art Sherman Ties the Kentucky Derby Favorite, California Chrome, to a Past Winner". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
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- ↑ Ehalt, Bob (May 5, 2014). "Majestic Prince: A Colt Who Lived Up to His Name". America's Best Racing. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
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- ↑ 100.0 100.1 Bozich, Rick (April 29, 2014). "D. Wayne Lukas Shares His Winning Derby Betting Strategy". WDRB. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
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- ↑ Coomes, Mark (April 14, 2014). "So far, everything is coming up roses for California Chrome". Insider Louisville. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
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- ↑ Hammonds, Evan (April 30, 2014). "California Chrome Draws Post 5 in Derby". Blood-Horse. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- ↑ Rees, Jennie (May 1, 2014). "Kentucky Derby 2014 | Odds and post positions". Courier-Journal. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
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- ↑ "Kentucky Derby: California Chrome draws No. 5" (VIDEO). NBC Sports. April 30, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- ↑ 114.0 114.1 114.2 "Churchill Downs- May 3, 2014– Race 11". Equibase. May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- ↑ Rogers, Darren (May 3, 2014). "California Chrome Cruises to Victory in 140th Kentucky Derby before Crowd of 164,906". Kentuckyderby.com. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- ↑ Harris, Beth (May 3, 2014). "California Chrome breaks away for Derby win". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 4, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- ↑ Debbie Arrington (April 29, 2014). "Trainer Art Sherman returns to Kentucky Derby 59 years later with race favorite California Chrome". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
- ↑ Walker, Childs (May 3, 2014). "Favorite California Chrome wins Kentucky Derby at Churchill Downs". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- ↑ "California Chrome Heads to Pimlico for 139th Preakness" (Press release). Pimlico Race Course. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- ↑ 120.0 120.1 Haskin, Steve (May 14, 2014). "California Chrome Has First Gallop at Pimlico". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
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- ↑ Staff. "Delgado: Chrome's 'a rock star and I am just a groupie'". Brisnet. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- ↑ LaMarra, Tom (May 14, 2014). "California Chrome Gets Post 3 for Preakness". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
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- ↑ 125.0 125.1 125.2 125.3 "Pimlico – May 17, 2014 – Race 12". Equibase. May 17, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- ↑ Zieralski, Ed (May 14, 2014). "California Chrome huge favorite in Preakness". U-T San Diego. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- ↑ Media Guide. "The Preakness" (PDF). Pimlico Race Course. p. P-27. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- ↑ Novak, Claire (May 15, 2014). "California Chrome Camp Dispels Sickness Rumor". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- ↑ Dwyre, Bill (May 15, 2014). "As for Preakness stories, California Chrome stands alone". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 21, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- ↑ Haskin, Steve (May 19, 2014). "Chrome Sweet Chrome". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
- ↑ 131.0 131.1 Markus, Don (May 18, 2014). "With Triple Crown a win away, California Chrome's competitors mull over their next move". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- ↑ 132.0 132.1 Beyer, Andrew (June 8, 2014). "California Chrome's owner clearly erred; Jockey Victor Espinoza might have, too". Washington Post. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
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- ↑ HRTV17May, 1:01.
- ↑ 136.0 136.1 136.2 Logue, Dan; Hall III, Isadore; Perea, Henry (August 14, 2014). "Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 161—Relative to California Chrome" (PDF). California Legislature. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- ↑ Paulick, Ray (May 19, 2014). "With 'Nasalgate' Over, Time to Focus on What's Important". Paulick Report. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
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- ↑ "'Chrome' Can Wear Nasal Strip in Belmont". Blood-Horse. May 19, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- ↑ "Joint Statement from the New York State Gaming Commission, NYRA and The Jockey Club Regarding the Use of Nasal Strips" (PDF). NYS Gaming Commission. May 19, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- ↑ Haskin, Steve (May 20, 2014). "California Chrome Arrives at Belmont". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- ↑ Hoppert, Melissa (May 20, 2014). "California Chrome Shows Star Quality in New York Arrival". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- ↑ Staff (May 23, 2014). "California Chrome Unfazed by Opossum on Track". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
- ↑ McClean, Ian (May 25, 2014). "California dreaming of elusive crowning glory". Irish Independent. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
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- ↑ Staff (May 27, 2014). "Chrome's Gallop Leaves Connections Raving". Blood-Horse. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- ↑ Manahan, Kevin (May 31, 2014). "Belmont Stakes 2014: California Chrome sharp in Saturday morning workout". NJ.com. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
- ↑ 150.0 150.1 Haskin, Steve (June 9, 2014). "Time to Move On". Blood-Horse. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- ↑ Staff (June 4, 2014). "California Chrome Draws Post No. 2 for Triple Crown Try at Belmont Stakes". NBC Sports. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
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- ↑ "Past Triple Crown Winners Ready For New Champ In California Chrome". CBS New York. Associated Press. May 28, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- ↑ Grening, David (June 7, 2014). "California Chrome grabbed quarter during Belmont". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- ↑ Fenno, Nathan (June 7, 2014). "Jockey Victor Espinoza about California Chrome: 'He was not the same'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- ↑ 156.0 156.1 "Belmont Park – June 7, 2014 – Race 11". Equibase. June 7, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
- ↑ 157.0 157.1 Rees, Jennie (June 9, 2014). "California Chrome trainer describes Belmont injury". Courier-Journal. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- ↑ 158.0 158.1 158.2 158.3 Novak, Claire (June 8, 2014). "'Chrome' Co-Owner Has No Regrets for Comments". Blood-Horse. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
- ↑ 159.0 159.1 Pedulla, Tom (June 19, 2014). "California Chrome off for some rest and relaxation". Fox Sports. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- ↑ 160.0 160.1 Shinar, Jack (June 11, 2014). "California Chrome Taking it Easy at Los Al". Blood-Horse. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- ↑ Mihoces, Gary (June 9, 2014). "'Ashamed': California Chrome owner Steve Coburn apologizes". USA Today. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- ↑ Shinar, Jack (July 10, 2014). "California Chrome Returning Early From Break". Blood-Horse. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
- ↑ "NTRA Top Thoroughbred Poll – June 9, 2014". National Thoroughbred Racing Association. June 9, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- ↑ Staff (June 12, 2014). "California Chrome Rated Fourth-Best in World". Blood-Horse. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- ↑ Zieralski, Ed (September 15, 2014). "Cali. Chrome gets No. 1 post for PA Derby". U-T San Diego. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
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- ↑ LaMarra, Tom (October 28, 2014). "California Chrome Camp Likes Classic Chances". Blood-Horse. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- ↑ Haskin, Steve (September 29, 2014). "Haskin: Thoughts on a Super Saturday". Blood-Horse. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
- ↑ Haskin, Steve (October 27, 2014). "Breeders' Cup Classic Will Answer Questions". Blood-Horse. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
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- ↑ Haskin, Steve (November 5, 2014). "Faded Dreams From the '14 Classic". Blood-Horse. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- ↑ Farrell, Mike (November 1, 2014). "California Chrome finishes 3rd in BC Classic". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved November 1, 2014.
- ↑ Shinar, Jack (November 1, 2014). "Bayern Wins Breeders' Cup Classic Slugfest". Blood-Horse. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
- ↑ Shinar, Jack (November 5, 2013). "California Chrome Will Campaign in 2015". Blood-Horse. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
- ↑ Privman, Jay (November 12, 2014). "California Chrome likely to run in Hollywood Derby". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
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- ↑ Haskin, Steve (February 3, 2015). "'Chrome', Shared Belief Ready for Battle". Blood-Horse. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
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- ↑ Stumes, Larry (March 26, 2015). "Sherman says California Chrome’s ready to run in Dubai". SF Gate. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
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- ↑ "California Chrome: Dubai World Cup runner-up set for Royal Ascot". BBC. BBC Sport. March 29, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
- ↑ Staff (April 3, 2015). "'Chrome', Karakontie Among Lockinge Nominees". Blood-Horse. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
- ↑ Arrington, Debbie (August 14, 2014). "Capitol salutes California Chrome". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- ↑ Fair PR (October 10, 2014). "Celebrate California Chrome Day At The Big Fresno Fair Tomorrow, Oct. 11!". The Big Fresno Fair. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
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- ↑ Hovdey, Jay (January 21, 2015). "Hovdey: California Chrome brings the gold trophy back to California". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
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- ↑ Hoppert, Melissa (May 3, 2014). "Highlights and Analysis: California Chrome Wins the Kentucky Derby". The New York Times. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- ↑ Staff (June 8, 2014). "Belmont Stakes Overnight TV Rating Strong". Blood-Horse. Retrieved June 8, 2014.
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- ↑ Andersen, Steve (September 28, 2014). "Espinoza suspended seven days for Awesome Again ride". Daily Racing Form. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- ↑ DeFord, Frank (June 4, 2014). "Will A Triple Crown Win Save Horse Racing? Don't Bet On It". NPR. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
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- ↑ 204.0 204.1 Rovell, Darren (May 2, 2014). "Skechers signs California Chrome". ESPN. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
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- ↑ Drape2002, p. 50.
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- ↑ "Winning Colors". Equineline. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- ↑ 218.0 218.1 Mitchell, Frank (May 5, 2014). "Bloodlines: Developing the Derby Winner's Family". Paulick Report. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
- ↑ Tower, Whitney (June 1, 1959). "The Man, The Horse And The Deal That Made History". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
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- ↑ Deubler, Cindy (May 2002). "Belair Museums stand in path of 'Progress'". Mid-Atlantic Thoroughbred: 22–27.
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- Drape, Joe (2002). The Race for the Triple Crown: Horses, High Stakes, and Eternal Hope (reprint ed.). Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-9645-3.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to California Chrome.|
- "Growing Up California Chrome", video of California Chrome as a young horse
- Photo of post- Belmont hoof injury of California Chrome,and close-up
- Daily Racing Form photo of Matterhorn and California Chrome at start