World War II

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World War II

Clockwise from top left: Chinese forces in the Battle of Wanjialing, Australian 25-pounder guns during the First Battle of El Alamein, German Stuka dive bombers on the Eastern Front winter 19431944, US naval force in the Lingayen Gulf, Wilhelm Keitel signing the German Instrument of Surrender, Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad
Date 1 September 1939 (1939-09-01) – 2 September 1945 (1945-09-02) (6 years, 1 day)
Location Europe, Pacific, Atlantic, South-East Asia, China, Middle East, Mediterranean and Africa, briefly North and South America
Result Allied victory

Soviet Union[lower-alpha 1]
 United States
 United Kingdom
 China[lower-alpha 2]
 France[lower-alpha 3]
 South Africa
 New Zealand
Czechoslovakia[lower-alpha 4]
Ethiopia[lower-alpha 5]
Denmark[lower-alpha 6]
 Iran [lower-alpha 7]


 Japan[lower-alpha 8]
 Italy[lower-alpha 9]


Client and puppet states:

Japan's Greater East Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere

Azad Hind

Commanders and leaders
Allied leaders

Soviet Union Joseph Stalin
United States Franklin D. Roosevelt
United Kingdom Winston Churchill
Republic of China (1912–1949) Chiang Kai-shek

Axis leaders

Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Empire of Japan Hirohito
Kingdom of Italy Benito Mussolini

Casualties and losses
Military dead:
Over 16,000,000
Civilian dead:
Over 45,000,000
Total dead:
Over 61,000,000 (193745)
...further details
Military dead:
Over 8,000,000
Civilian dead:
Over 4,000,000
Total dead:
Over 12,000,000 (193745)
...further details

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war. It is generally considered to have lasted from 1939 to 1945, although some conflicts in Asia that are commonly viewed as becoming part of the world war had begun earlier than 1939. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people, from more than 30 different countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the first use of nuclear weapons in combat, it resulted in an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history.[1]

The Empire of Japan aimed to dominate East Asia and was already at war with the Republic of China in 1937,[2] but the world war is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939 with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom. From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany formed the Axis alliance with Italy, conquering or subduing much of continental Europe. Following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories between themselves of their European neighbours, including Poland, Finland and the Baltic states. The United Kingdom and the other members of the British Commonwealth were the only major Allied forces continuing the fight against the Axis, with battles taking place in North and East Africa as well as the long-running Battle of the Atlantic. In June 1941, the European Axis launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, giving a start to the largest land theatre of war in history, which tied down the major part of the Axis' military forces for the rest of the war. In December 1941, Japan joined the Axis, attacked the United States and European territories in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.

The Axis advance was stopped in 1942. Japan lost a critical battle at Midway, near Hawaii, and never regained its earlier momentum. Germany was defeated in North Africa and, decisively, at Stalingrad in Russia. In 1943, with a series of German defeats in Eastern Europe, the Allied invasion of Italy which brought about that nation's surrender, and American victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative and undertook strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese began suffering major reverses in mainland Asia in Burma and South Central China whilst the United States defeated the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands.

The war in Europe ended with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet and Polish troops and the subsequent German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago (known as Operation Downfall) imminent, and the Soviet Union having declared war on Japan by invading Manchuria, Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945, ending the war in Asia and cementing the total victory of the Allies over the Axis.

World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The great powers that were the victors of the war—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, and France—became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[3] The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers started to decline, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to stabilise postwar relations and cooperate more effectively in the Cold War.[4]


The start of the war is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland; Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. Other dates for the beginning of war include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937.[5]

Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and the two wars merged in 1941. This article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935.[6] The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of the Second World War as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the Mongolia, Soviet Union from May to September 1939.[7]

The exact date of the war's end is also not universally agreed upon. It has been suggested that the war ended at the armistice of 14 August 1945 (V-J Day), rather than the formal surrender of Japan (2 September 1945); in some European histories, it ended on V-E Day (8 May 1945). However, the Treaty of Peace with Japan was not signed until 1951,[8] and that with Germany not until 1990.[9]


Flag of the Italian Fascist National Party. The symbol in the centre is a fasces; an ancient Roman symbol of imperium and authority

World War I had radically altered the political map, with the defeat of the Central Powers—including Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire—and the 1917 Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia. Meanwhile, existing victorious Allies such as France, Belgium, Italy, Greece and Romania gained territories, while new states were created out of the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Russian and Ottoman Empires.

Despite the pacifist movement in the aftermath of the war,[10] the losses still caused irredentist and revanchist nationalism to become important in a number of European states. Irredentism and revanchism were strong in Germany because of the significant territorial, colonial, and financial losses incurred by the Treaty of Versailles. Under the treaty, Germany lost around 13 percent of its home territory and all of its overseas colonies, while German annexation of other states was prohibited, reparations were imposed, and limits were placed on the size and capability of the country's armed forces.[11] Meanwhile, the Russian Civil War had led to the creation of the Soviet Union.[12]

The German Empire was dissolved in the German Revolution of 1918–1919, and a democratic government, later known as the Weimar Republic, was created. The interwar period saw strife between supporters of the new republic and hardline opponents on both the right and left. Although Italy as an Entente ally made some territorial gains, Italian nationalists were angered that the promises made by Britain and France to secure Italian entrance into the war were not fulfilled with the peace settlement. From 1922 to 1925, the Fascist movement led by Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy with a nationalist, totalitarian, and class collaborationist agenda that abolished representative democracy, repressed socialist, left-wing and liberal forces, and pursued an aggressive foreign policy aimed at forcefully forging Italy as a world power, promising the creation of a "New Roman Empire".[13]

In Germany, the Weimar Republic's legitimacy was challenged by right-wing elements such the Freikorps and the Nazi party, resulting in events such as the Kapp Putsch and the Beer Hall Putsch. With the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, domestic support for Nazism and its leader Adolf Hitler rose and, in 1933, he was appointed Chancellor of Germany. In the aftermath of the Reichstag fire, Hitler created a totalitarian single-party state led by the Nazis.[14]

Adolf Hitler at a German National Socialist political rally in Weimar, October 1930
Imperial eagle of German National Socialism, with a swastika in a wreath of oak leafs

The Kuomintang (KMT) party in China launched a unification campaign against regional warlords and nominally unified China in the mid-1920s, but was soon embroiled in a civil war against its former Chinese communist allies.[15] In 1931, an increasingly militaristic Japanese Empire, which had long sought influence in China[16] as the first step of what its government saw as the country's right to rule Asia, used the Mukden Incident as a pretext to launch an invasion of Manchuria and establish the puppet state of Manchukuo.[17]

Too weak to resist Japan, China appealed to the League of Nations for help. Japan withdrew from the League of Nations after being condemned for its incursion into Manchuria. The two nations then fought several battles, in Shanghai, Rehe and Hebei, until the Tanggu Truce was signed in 1933. Thereafter, Chinese volunteer forces continued the resistance to Japanese aggression in Manchuria, and Chahar and Suiyuan.[18]

German Führer Adolf Hitler, and Itallian Duce Benito Mussolini, 1938

Adolf Hitler, after an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government in 1923, became the Chancellor of Germany in 1933, through a successful victory in the democratic German Federal election of 1932; running on an open platform of right-wing Nazi ideology. Once in power, he abolished the democratic process, espousing a radical, racially motivated revision of the world order, and soon began a massive rearmament campaign.[19] It was at this time that multiple political scientists began to predict that a second Great War might take place.[20] Meanwhile, France, to secure its alliance, allowed Italy a free hand in Ethiopia, which Italy desired as a colonial possession. The situation was aggravated in early 1935 when the Territory of the Saar Basin was legally reunited with Germany and Hitler repudiated the Treaty of Versailles, accelerated his rearmament programme and introduced conscription.[21]

Hoping to contain Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy formed the Stresa Front; however, in June 1935, the United Kingdom made an independent naval agreement with Germany, easing prior restrictions. The Soviet Union, concerned due to Germany's goals of capturing vast areas of eastern Europe, wrote a treaty of mutual assistance with France. Before taking effect though, the Franco-Soviet pact was required to go through the bureaucracy of the League of Nations, which rendered it essentially toothless.[22] The United States, concerned with events in Europe and Asia, passed the Neutrality Act in August.[23] In October, Italy invaded Ethiopia, and Germany was the only major European nation to support the invasion. Italy subsequently dropped its objections to Germany's goal of absorbing Austria.[24]

Hitler defied the Versailles and Locarno treaties by remilitarising the Rhineland in March 1936. He received little response from other European powers.[25] When the Spanish Civil War broke out in July, Hitler and Mussolini supported the fascist and authoritarian Nationalist forces in their civil war against the Soviet-supported Spanish Republic. Both sides used the conflict to test new weapons and methods of warfare,[26] with the Nationalists winning the war in early 1939. In October 1936, Germany and Italy formed the Rome-Berlin Axis. A month later, Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, which Italy would join in the following year. In China, after the Xi'an Incident the Kuomintang and communist forces agreed on a ceasefire in order to present a united front to oppose Japan.[27]

Pre-war events

Italian invasion of Ethiopia (1935)

Italian soldiers recruited in 1935, on their way to fight the Second Italo-Abyssinian War

The Second Italo–Abyssinian War was a brief colonial war that began in October 1935 and ended in May 1936. The war was fought between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) and the armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia). The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI); in addition, it exposed the weakness of the League of Nations as a force to preserve peace. Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations, but the League did nothing when the former clearly violated the League's own Article X.[28]

Spanish Civil War (1936–39)

The bombing of Guernica in 1937, sparked Europe-wide fears that the next war would be based on bombing of cities, with very high civilian casualties

During the Spanish Civil War, Hitler and Mussolini lent military support to the Nationalist rebels, led by General Francisco Franco. The Soviet Union supported the existing government, the Spanish Republic. Over 30,000 foreign volunteers, known as the International Brigades, also fought against the Nationalists. Both Germany and the USSR used this proxy war as an opportunity to test in combat their most advanced weapons and tactics. The bombing of Guernica by the German Condor Legion in April 1937 heightened widespread concerns that the next major war would include extensive terror bombing attacks on civilians.[29][30] The Nationalists won the civil war in April 1939; Franco, now dictator, bargained with both sides during the Second World War, but never concluded any major agreements. He did send volunteers to fight on the eastern front under German command but Spain remained neutral and did not allow either side to use its territory.[31]

Japanese invasion of China (1937)

Japanese Imperial Army soldiers, during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937

In July 1937, Japan captured the former Chinese imperial capital of Beijing after instigating the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, which culminated in the Japanese campaign to invade all of China.[32] The Soviets quickly signed a non-aggression pact with China to lend materiel support, effectively ending China's prior co-operation with Germany. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to defend Shanghai, but, after three months of fighting, Shanghai fell. The Japanese continued to push the Chinese forces back, capturing the capital Nanking in December 1937 and committed the Nanking Massacre.

In March 1938, Nationalist Chinese force got their first major victory at Taierzhuang but then city Xuzhou was taken by Japanese in May.[33] In June 1938, Chinese forces stalled the Japanese advance by flooding the Yellow River; this manoeuvre bought time for the Chinese to prepare their defences at Wuhan, but the city was taken by October.[34] Japanese military victories did not bring about the collapse of Chinese resistance that Japan had hoped to achieve; instead the Chinese government relocated inland to Chongqing and continued the war.[35][36]

Japanese invasion of the Soviet Union and Mongolia (1938)

These clashes convinced some factions in the Japanese government that they should focus on conciliating the Soviet government to avoid interference in the war against China and instead turn their military attention southward, towards the US and European holdings in the Pacific, and also prevented the sacking of experienced Soviet military leaders such as Georgy Zhukov, who would later play a vital role in the defence of Moscow.[37]

European occupations and agreements

Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement

In Europe, Germany and Italy were becoming bolder. In March 1938, Germany annexed Austria, again provoking little response from other European powers.[38] Encouraged, Hitler began pressing German claims on the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia with a predominantly ethnic German population; and soon Britain and France followed the counsel of prime minister Neville Chamberlain and conceded this territory to Germany in the Munich Agreement, which was made against the wishes of the Czechoslovak government, in exchange for a promise of no further territorial demands.[39] Soon afterwards, Germany and Italy forced Czechoslovakia to cede additional territory to Hungary and Poland.[40]

Although all of Germany's stated demands had been satisfied by the agreement, privately Hitler was furious that British interference had prevented him from seizing all of Czechoslovakia in one operation. In subsequent speeches Hitler attacked British and Jewish "war-mongers" and in January 1939 secretly ordered a major build-up of the German navy to challenge British naval supremacy. In March 1939, Germany invaded the remainder of Czechoslovakia and subsequently split it into the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and a pro-German client state, the Slovak Republic.[41] Hitler also delivered an ultimatum to Lithuania, forcing the concession of the Klaipėda Region.

Ribbentrop signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact. Standing behind him are Molotov and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin

Alarmed, and with Hitler making further demands on the Free City of Danzig, France and Britain guaranteed their support for Polish independence; when Italy conquered Albania in April 1939, the same guarantee was extended to Romania and Greece.[42] Shortly after the Franco-British pledge to Poland, Germany and Italy formalised their own alliance with the Pact of Steel.[43] Hitler accused Britain and Poland of trying to "encircle" Germany and renounced the Anglo-German Naval Agreement and the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact.

In August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact,[44] a non-aggression treaty with a secret protocol. The parties gave each other rights to "spheres of influence" (western Poland and Lithuania for Germany; eastern Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia for the USSR). It also raised the question of continuing Polish independence.[45] The agreement was crucial to Hitler because it assured that Germany would not have to face the prospect of a two-front war, as it had in World War I, after it defeated Poland.

The situation reached a general crisis in late August as German troops continued to mobilise against the Polish border. In a private meeting with the Italian foreign minister, Count Ciano, Hitler asserted that Poland was a "doubtful neutral" that needed to either yield to his demands or be "liquidated" to prevent it from drawing off German troops in the future "unavoidable" war with the Western democracies. He did not believe Britain or France would intervene in the conflict.[46] On 23 August Hitler ordered the attack to proceed on 26 August, but upon hearing that Britain had concluded a formal mutual assistance pact with Poland and that Italy would maintain neutrality, he decided to delay it.[47] In response to British pleas for direct negotiations, Germany demanded on 29 August that a Polish plenipotentiary immediately travel to Berlin to negotiate the handover of Danzig and the Polish Corridor to Germany as well as to agree to safeguard the German minority in Poland. The Poles refused to comply with this request and on the evening of 31 August Germany declared that it considered its proposals rejected.[48]

Course of the war

War breaks out in Europe (1939–40)

Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing between Poland and the Free City of Danzig, 1 September 1939
Emblem of the German Wehrmacht

On 1 September 1939, Germany and the Slovak puppet state invaded Poland, on the false pretext that Poland had launched attacks on German territory.[49] On 3 September France and Britain, followed by the fully independent Dominions[50] of the British Commonwealth,[51]Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa – declared war on Germany, but provided little support to Poland other than a small French attack into the Saarland.[52] Britain and France also began a naval blockade of Germany on 3 September which aimed to damage the country's economy and war effort.[53] Germany responded by ordering U-boat warfare against Allied merchant and war ships, which was to later escalate in the Battle of the Atlantic.

German Panzer I tanks near the Brda River, during the Invasion of Poland on 3 September 1939. The new mechanized German Blitzkrieg tactics allowed for swift military maneuvering, and became synonymous with indiscriminate targeting of civilian populations

On 17 September 1939, after signing a cease-fire with Japan, the Soviets also invaded Poland from the east.[54] The Red Army take over of eastern Poland was followed by a wave of Soviet repression. The Polish army was ultimately defeated, and Warsaw surrendered to the Germans on 27 September, with final pockets of resistance surrendering on 6 October. Poland's territory was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union, with Lithuania and Slovakia also receiving small shares. The Poles never fully surrendered, and the government refused to collaborate with the Nazis; they established a Polish Underground State, an underground Home Army, and continued to fight alongside the Allies on all fronts in Europe and North Africa.[55]

About 100,000 Polish military personnel were evacuated to Romania and the Baltic countries; many of these soldiers later fought against the Germans in other theatres of the war.[56] Poland's Enigma codebreakers were also evacuated to France.[57] During this time, Japan launched its first attack against Changsha, a strategically important Chinese city, but was repulsed by late September.[58]

On 6 October Hitler made a public peace overture to Britain and France, but said that the future of Poland was to be determined exclusively by Germany and the Soviet Union. Chamberlain rejected this on 12 October, saying "Past experience has shown that no reliance can be placed upon the promises of the present German Government."[48] After this rejection Hitler ordered an immediate offensive against France, but his generals persuaded him to wait until May of the next year.

Following the successful German invasion of Poland, the Nazis began a reign of terror on the civilian population. Under the guidelines of Generalplan Ost, many ethnic Poles were expelled from their homes, to make way for German colonists from the Reich. On direct orders from Hitler, the German SS started a ruthless murder campaign, executing thousands of Poles, and sending many more to the newly build concentration camps as slave labour. The three million Polish Jews were placed in ghettos, to await the final solution.

After signing the German-Soviet treaty governing Lithuania, the Soviet Union forced the Baltic countries to allow it to station Soviet troops in their countries under pacts of "mutual assistance."[59][60][61] Finland rejected territorial demands and was invaded by the Soviet Union in November 1939.[62] The resulting Winter War ended in March 1940 with Finnish concessions.[63] France and the United Kingdom, treating the Soviet attack on Finland as tantamount to entering the war on the side of the Germans, responded to the Soviet invasion by supporting the USSR's expulsion from the League of Nations.[61]

In December 1939 Britain won a naval victory over Germany in the south Atlantic during the Battle of the River Plate.

Western Europe (1940–41)

Map of the French Maginot Line

In April 1940, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway to protect shipments of iron ore from Sweden, which the Allies were attempting to cut off by unilaterally mining neutral Norwegian waters.[64] Denmark capitulated after a few hours, and despite Allied support, Norway was conquered within two months.[65] British discontent over the Norwegian campaign led to the replacement of the British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, with Winston Churchill on 10 May 1940.[66]

Germany launched an offensive against France and, for reasons of military strategy, also attacked the neutral nations of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg on 10 May 1940.[67] That same day Britain occupied the Danish possessions of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroes to preempt a possible German invasion of the islands.[68] The Netherlands and Belgium were overrun using blitzkrieg tactics in a few days and weeks, respectively.[69] The French-fortified Maginot Line and the main body the Allied forces which had moved into Belgium were circumvented by a flanking movement through the thickly wooded Ardennes region,[70] mistakenly perceived by Allied planners as an impenetrable natural barrier against armoured vehicles.[71] As a result, the bulk of the Allied armies found themselves trapped in an encirclement and were beaten.

View of London after "The Blitz" on 29 December 1940. Over a period of 267 days the city was attacked 71 times by the German Luftwaffe

Allied troops were forced to evacuate the continent at Dunkirk, abandoning their heavy equipment by early June.[72] On 10 June, Italy invaded France, declaring war on both France and Britain;[73] Paris fell on 14 June and eight days later France surrendered and was soon divided into German and Italian occupation zones,[74] and an unoccupied rump state under the Vichy Regime, which, though officially neutral, was generally aligned with Germany. France kept its fleet but the British feared the Germans would seize it, so on 3 July, the British attacked it.[75]

In June 1940, the Soviet Union forcibly annexed Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania,[60] and then annexed the disputed Romanian region of Bessarabia. Meanwhile, Nazi-Soviet political rapprochement and economic co-operation[76][77] gradually stalled,[78][79] and both states began preparations for war.[80]

German Luftwaffe, Heinkel He 111 bombers, during the Battle of Britain

On 19 July, Hitler again publicly offered to end the war, saying he had no desire to destroy the British Empire. Britain rejected this, with Lord Halifax responding "there was in his speech no suggestion that peace must be based on justice, no word of recognition that the other nations of Europe had any right to self‑determination ..."[81]

Following this, Germany began an air superiority campaign over Britain (the Battle of Britain) to prepare for an invasion.[82] The campaign failed, and the invasion plans were cancelled by September.[82] Frustrated, and in part in response to repeated British air raids against Berlin, Germany began a strategic bombing offensive against British cities known as the Blitz.[83] However, the air attacks largely failed to either disrupt the British war effort or convince them to sue for peace.

Using newly captured French ports, the German Navy enjoyed success against an over-extended Royal Navy, using U-boats against British shipping in the Atlantic.[84] The British scored a significant victory on 27 May 1941 by sinking the German battleship Bismarck.[85] Perhaps most importantly, during the Battle of Britain the Royal Air Force had successfully resisted the Luftwaffe's assault, and the German bombing campaign largely ended in May 1941.[86]

Throughout this period, the neutral United States took measures to assist China and the Western Allies. In November 1939, the American Neutrality Act was amended to allow "cash and carry" purchases by the Allies.[87] In 1940, following the German capture of Paris, the size of the United States Navy was significantly increased. In September, the United States further agreed to a trade of American destroyers for British bases.[88] Still, a large majority of the American public continued to oppose any direct military intervention into the conflict well into 1941.[89]

Although Roosevelt had promised to keep the United States out of the war, he nevertheless took concrete steps to prepare for that eventuality. In December 1940 he accused Hitler of planning world conquest and ruled out negotiations as useless, calling for the US to become an "arsenal for democracy" and promoted the passage of Lend-Lease aid to support the British war effort.[81] In January 1941 secret high level staff talks with the British began for the purposes of determining how to defeat Germany should the US enter the war. They decided on a number of offensive policies, including an air offensive, the "early elimination" of Italy, raids, support of resistance groups, and the capture of positions to launch an offensive against Germany.[90]

At the end of September 1940, the Tripartite Pact united Japan, Italy and Germany to formalise the Axis Powers. The Tripartite Pact stipulated that any country, with the exception of the Soviet Union, not in the war which attacked any Axis Power would be forced to go to war against all three.[91] The Axis expanded in November 1940 when Hungary, Slovakia and Romania joined the Tripartite Pact.[92] Romania would make a major contribution (as did Hungary) to the Axis war against the USSR, partially to recapture territory ceded to the USSR, partially to pursue its leader Ion Antonescu's desire to combat communism.[93]

Mediterranean (1940–41)

Australian troops of the British Commonwealth Forces man a front-line trench, during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, August 1941

Italy began operations in the Mediterranean, initiating a siege of Malta in June, conquering British Somaliland in August, and making an incursion into British-held Egypt in September 1940. In October 1940, Italy started the Greco-Italian War due to Mussolini's jealousy of Hitler's success but within days was repulsed and pushed back into Albania, where a stalemate soon occurred.[94] Britain responded to Greek requests for assistance by sending troops to Crete and providing air support to Greece. Hitler decided to take action against Greece when the weather improved to assist the Italians and prevent the British from gaining a foothold in the Balkans, to strike against the British naval dominance of the Mediterranean, and to secure his hold on Romanian oil.[95]

In December 1940, British Commonwealth forces began counter-offensives against Italian forces in Egypt and Italian East Africa.[96] The offensive in North Africa was highly successful and by early February 1941 Italy had lost control of eastern Libya and large numbers of Italian troops had been taken prisoner. The Italian Navy also suffered significant defeats, with the Royal Navy putting three Italian battleships out of commission by a carrier attack at Taranto, and neutralising several more warships at the Battle of Cape Matapan.[97]

The Germans soon intervened to assist Italy. Hitler sent German forces to Libya in February, and by the end of March they had launched an offensive which drove back the Commonwealth forces who had been weakened to support Greece.[98] In under a month, Commonwealth forces were pushed back into Egypt with the exception of the besieged port of Tobruk.[99] The Commonwealth attempted to dislodge Axis forces in May and again in June, but failed on both occasions.[100]

By late March 1941, following Bulgaria's signing of the Tripartite Pact, the Germans were in position to intervene in Greece. Plans were changed, however, due to developments in neighbouring Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav government had signed the Tripartite Pact on 25 March, only to be overthrown two days later by a British-encouraged coup. Hitler viewed the new regime as hostile and immediately decided to eliminate it. On 6 April Germany simultaneously invaded both Yugoslavia and Greece, making rapid progress and forcing both nations to surrender within the month. The British were driven from the Balkans after Germany conquered the Greek island of Crete by the end of May.[101] Although the Axis victory was swift, bitter partisan warfare subsequently broke out against the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, which continued until the end of the war.

The Allies did have some successes during this time. In the Middle East, Commonwealth forces first quashed an uprising in Iraq which had been supported by German aircraft from bases within Vichy-controlled Syria,[102] then, with the assistance of the Free French, invaded Syria and Lebanon to prevent further such occurrences.[103]

Axis attack on the USSR (1941)

Animation of the European WWII theatre
German SS commander Heinrich Himmler viewing Soviet POWs, 1941. By the end of the war, some 3.3 to 3.5 million Russian troops will die in German prison camps; or about 60% of all captured Red Army soldiers
Cap insignia of the German SS
Execution of a Jewish woman holding child, by German SS, Einsatzgruppen killing unit in Ukraine. Photo was mailed from the Eastern Front to Germany, and intercepted at a Warsaw post office by members of the Polish Resistance collecting documentation on Nazi war crimes, 1942

With the situation in Europe and Asia relatively stable, Germany, Japan, and the Soviet Union made preparations. With the Soviets wary of mounting tensions with Germany and the Japanese planning to take advantage of the European War by seizing resource-rich European possessions in Southeast Asia, the two powers signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact in April 1941.[104] By contrast, the Germans were steadily making preparations for an attack on the Soviet Union, amassing forces on the Soviet border.[105]

Hitler believed that Britain's refusal to end the war was based on the hope that the United States and the Soviet Union would enter the war against Germany sooner or later.[106] He accordingly decided to try to strengthen Germany's relations with the Soviets, or failing that, to attack and eliminate them as a factor. In November 1940 negotiations took place to determine if the Soviet Union would join the Tripartite Pact. The Soviets showed some interest, but asked for concessions from Finland, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Japan that Germany considered unacceptable. On 18 December 1940 Hitler issued the directive to prepare for an invasion of the Soviet Union.

On 22 June 1941, Germany, Italy and Romania invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, with Germany accusing the Soviets of plotting against them. They were joined shortly by Finland and Hungary.[107] The primary targets of this surprise offensive[108] were the Baltic region, Moscow and Ukraine, with the ultimate goal of ending the 1941 campaign near the Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan line, from the Caspian to the White Seas. Hitler's objectives were to eliminate the Soviet Union as a military power, exterminate Communism, generate Lebensraum ("living space")[109] by dispossessing the native population[110] and guarantee access to the strategic resources needed to defeat Germany's remaining rivals.[111]

Although the Red Army was preparing for strategic counter-offensives before the war,[112] Barbarossa forced the Soviet supreme command to adopt a strategic defence. During the summer, the Axis made significant gains into Soviet territory, inflicting immense losses in both personnel and materiel. By the middle of August, however, the German Army High Command decided to suspend the offensive of a considerably depleted Army Group Centre, and to divert the 2nd Panzer Group to reinforce troops advancing towards central Ukraine and Leningrad.[113] The Kiev offensive was overwhelmingly successful, resulting in encirclement and elimination of four Soviet armies, and made further advance into Crimea and industrially developed Eastern Ukraine (the First Battle of Kharkov) possible.[114]

The diversion of three quarters of the Axis troops and the majority of their air forces from France and the central Mediterranean to the Eastern Front[115] prompted Britain to reconsider its grand strategy.[116] In July, the UK and the Soviet Union formed a military alliance against Germany[117] The British and Soviets invaded Iran to secure the Persian Corridor and Iran's oil fields.[118] In August, the United Kingdom and the United States jointly issued the Atlantic Charter.[119]

By October, when Axis operational objectives in Ukraine and the Baltic region were achieved, with only the sieges of Leningrad[120] and Sevastopol continuing,[121] a major offensive against Moscow had been renewed. After two months of fierce battles, the German army almost reached the outer suburbs of Moscow, where the exhausted troops[122] were forced to suspend their offensive.[123] Large territorial gains were made by Axis forces, but their campaign had failed to achieve its main objectives: two key cities remained in Soviet hands, the Soviet capability to resist was not broken, and the Soviet Union retained a considerable part of its military potential. The blitzkrieg phase of the war in Europe had ended.[124]

By early December, freshly mobilised reserves[125] allowed the Soviets to achieve numerical parity with Axis troops.[126] This, as well as intelligence data that established a minimal number of Soviet troops in the East sufficient to prevent any attack by the Japanese Kwantung Army,[127] allowed the Soviets to begin a massive counter-offensive that started on 5 December all along the front and pushed German troops 100–250 kilometres (62–155 mi) west.[128]

War breaks out in the Pacific (1941)

Mitsubishi A6M2, "Zero" fighters on the Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carrier Shōkaku, just before the attack on Pearl Harbor

In 1939 the United States had renounced its trade treaty with Japan and beginning with an aviation gasoline ban in July 1940 Japan had become subject to increasing economic pressure.[81] Despite several offensives by both sides, the war between China and Japan was stalemated by 1940. In order to increase pressure on China by blocking supply routes, and to better position Japanese forces in the event of a war with the Western powers, Japan had occupied northern Indochina[129] Afterwards, the United States embargoed iron, steel and mechanical parts against Japan.[130] Other sanctions soon followed.

In August of that year, Chinese communists launched an offensive in Central China; in retaliation, Japan instituted harsh measures (the Three Alls Policy) in occupied areas to reduce human and material resources for the communists.[131] Continued antipathy between Chinese communist and nationalist forces culminated in armed clashes in January 1941, effectively ending their co-operation.[132] In March, the Japanese 11th army attacked the headquarters of the Chinese 19th army but was repulsed during Battle of Shanggao.[133] In September, Japan attempted to take the city of Changsha again and clashed with Chinese nationalist forces.[134]

German successes in Europe encouraged Japan to increase pressure on European governments in south-east Asia. The Dutch government agreed to provide Japan some oil supplies from the Dutch East Indies, but negotiations for additional access to their resources ended in failure in June 1941.[135] In July 1941 Japan sent troops to southern Indochina, thus threatening British and Dutch possessions in the Far East. The United States, United Kingdom and other Western governments reacted to this move with a freeze on Japanese assets and a total oil embargo.[136][137]

Since early 1941 the United States and Japan had been engaged in negotiations in an attempt to improve their strained relations and end the war in China. During these negotiations Japan advanced a number of proposals which were dismissed by the Americans as inadequate.[138] At the same time the US, Britain, and the Netherlands engaged in secret discussions for the joint defence of their territories in the event of a Japanese attack against any of them.[139] Roosevelt reinforced the Philippines (an American possession since 1898) and warned Japan that the US would react to Japanese attacks against any "neighboring countries".[139]

USS Arizona during the Japanese surprise air attack on the American pacific fleet, 7 December 1941. The battleship went down after a Japanese bomb scored a direct hit on one of the ship's ammunition magazines, creating an explosion that killed 1,177 crewmen

Frustrated at the lack of progress and feeling the pinch of the American-British-Dutch sanctions, Japan prepared for war. On 20 November it presented an interim proposal as its final offer. It called for the end of American aid to China and the supply of oil and other resources to Japan. In exchange they promised not to launch any attacks in Southeast Asia and to withdraw their forces from their threatening positions in southern Indochina.[138] The American counter-proposal of 26 November required that Japan evacuate all of China without conditions and conclude non-aggression pacts with all Pacific powers.[140] That meant Japan was essentially forced to choose between abandoning its ambitions in China, or seizing the natural resources it needed in the Dutch East Indies by force;[141] the Japanese military did not consider the former an option, and many officers considered the oil embargo an unspoken declaration of war.[142]

Japan planned to rapidly seize European colonies in Asia to create a large defensive perimeter stretching into the Central Pacific; the Japanese would then be free to exploit the resources of Southeast Asia while exhausting the over-stretched Allies by fighting a defensive war.[143] To prevent American intervention while securing the perimeter it was further planned to neutralise the United States Pacific Fleet and the American military presence in the Philippines from the outset.[144] On 7 December (8 December in Asian time zones), 1941, Japan attacked British and American holdings with near-simultaneous offensives against Southeast Asia and the Central Pacific.[145] These included an attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harbor, landings in Thailand and Malaya[145] and the battle of Hong Kong.

These attacks led the United States, Britain, China, Australia and several other states to formally declare war on Japan, whereas the Soviet Union, being heavily involved in large-scale hostilities with European Axis countries, preferred to maintain a neutrality agreement with Japan.[146] Germany, followed by the other Axis states, declared war on the United States in solidarity with Japan, citing as justification the American attacks on German submarines and merchant ships that had been ordered by Roosevelt.[107]

Axis advance stalls (1942–43)

Seated at the Casablanca Conference, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill, January 1943

In January, the United States, Britain, Soviet Union, China, and 22 smaller or exiled governments issued the Declaration by United Nations, thereby affirming the Atlantic Charter,[147] and taking an obligation not to sign separate peace with the Axis powers.

During 1942 Allied officials debated on the appropriate grand strategy to pursue. All agreed that defeating Germany was the primary objective. The Americans favoured a straightforward, large-scale attack on Germany through France. The Soviets were also demanding a second front. The British, on the other hand, argued that military operations should target peripheral areas in order to throw a "ring" around Germany which would wear out German strength, lead to increasing demoralisation, and bolster resistance forces. Germany itself would be subject to a heavy bombing campaign. An offensive against Germany would then be launched primarily by Allied armour without using large-scale armies.[148] Eventually, the British persuaded the Americans that a landing in France was infeasible in 1942 and they should instead focus on driving the Axis out of North Africa.[149]

At the Casablanca Conference in early 1943 the Allies issued a declaration declaring that they would not negotiate with their enemies and demanded their unconditional surrender. The British and Americans agreed to continue to press the initiative in the Mediterranean by invading Sicily to fully secure the Mediterranean supply routes.[150] Although the British argued for further operations in the Balkans to bring Turkey into the war, in May 1943 the Americans extracted a British commitment to limit Allied operations in the Mediterranean to an invasion of the Italian mainland and to invade France in 1944.[151]

Pacific (1942–43)

Map of Japanese military advances, until mid-1942

By the end of April 1942, Japan and its ally Thailand had almost fully conquered Burma, Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, Singapore, and Rabaul, inflicting severe losses on Allied troops and taking a large number of prisoners.[152] Despite stubborn resistance at Corregidor, the US possession of the Philippines was eventually captured in May 1942, forcing its government into exile.[153] On 16 April, in Burma 7,000 British soldiers were encircled by the Japanese 33rd Division during the Battle of Yenangyaung and rescued by the Chinese 38th Division.[154] Japanese forces also achieved naval victories in the South China Sea, Java Sea and Indian Ocean,[155] and bombed the Allied naval base at Darwin, Australia. The only real Allied success against Japan was a Chinese victory at Changsha in early January 1942.[156] These easy victories over unprepared opponents left Japan overconfident, as well as overextended.[157]

The Bataan Death March in May 1942. As many, as 10,000 Filipino and 600 US POWs held by the Japanese died, in the forced march back to Camp O'Donnell

In early May 1942, Japan initiated operations to capture Port Moresby by amphibious assault and thus sever communications and supply lines between the United States and Australia. The Allies, however, prevented the invasion by intercepting and defeating the Japanese naval forces in the Battle of the Coral Sea.[158] Japan's next plan, motivated by the earlier Doolittle Raid, was to seize Midway Atoll and lure American carriers into battle to be eliminated; as a diversion, Japan would also send forces to occupy the Aleutian Islands in Alaska.[159] In early June, Japan put its operations into action but the Americans, having broken Japanese naval codes in late May, were fully aware of the plans and force dispositions and used this knowledge to achieve a decisive victory at Midway over the Imperial Japanese Navy.[160]

With its capacity for aggressive action greatly diminished as a result of the Midway battle, Japan chose to focus on a belated attempt to capture Port Moresby by an overland campaign in the Territory of Papua.[161] The Americans planned a counter-attack against Japanese positions in the southern Solomon Islands, primarily Guadalcanal, as a first step towards capturing Rabaul, the main Japanese base in Southeast Asia.[162]

Both plans started in July, but by mid-September, the Battle for Guadalcanal took priority for the Japanese, and troops in New Guinea were ordered to withdraw from the Port Moresby area to the northern part of the island, where they faced Australian and United States troops in the Battle of Buna-Gona.[163] Guadalcanal soon became a focal point for both sides with heavy commitments of troops and ships in the battle for Guadalcanal. By the start of 1943, the Japanese were defeated on the island and withdrew their troops.[164] In Burma, Commonwealth forces mounted two operations. The first, an offensive into the Arakan region in late 1942, went disastrously, forcing a retreat back to India by May 1943.[165] The second was the insertion of irregular forces behind Japanese front-lines in February which, by the end of April, had achieved mixed results.[166]

Eastern Front (1942–43)

Red Army soldiers on the counterattack, during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943

Despite considerable losses, in early 1942 Germany and its allies stopped a major Soviet offensive in Central and Southern Russia, keeping most territorial gains they had achieved during the previous year.[167] In May the Germans defeated Soviet offensives in the Kerch Peninsula and at Kharkiv,[168] and then launched their main summer offensive against southern Russia in June 1942, to seize the oil fields of the Caucasus and occupy Kuban steppe, while maintaining positions on the northern and central areas of the front. The Germans split Army Group South into two groups: Army Group A struck lower Don River while Army Group B struck south-east to the Caucasus, towards Volga River.[169] The Soviets decided to make their stand at Stalingrad, which was in the path of the advancing German armies.

By mid-November, the Germans had nearly taken Stalingrad in bitter street fighting when the Soviets began their second winter counter-offensive, starting with an encirclement of German forces at Stalingrad[170] and an assault on the Rzhev salient near Moscow, though the latter failed disastrously.[171] By early February 1943, the German Army had taken tremendous losses; German troops at Stalingrad had been forced to surrender,[172] and the front-line had been pushed back beyond its position before the summer offensive. In mid-February, after the Soviet push had tapered off, the Germans launched another attack on Kharkiv, creating a salient in their front line around the Russian city of Kursk.[173]

Western Europe/Atlantic & Mediterranean (1942–43)

An American B-17 bombing raid, by the 8th Air Force, on the Focke Wulf factory at Marienburg, Germany, 9 October 1943
Wing insignia of the United States Army Air Forces

Exploiting poor American naval command decisions, the German navy ravaged Allied shipping off the American Atlantic coast.[174] By November 1941, Commonwealth forces had launched a counter-offensive, Operation Crusader, in North Africa, and reclaimed all the gains the Germans and Italians had made.[175] In North Africa, the Germans launched an offensive in January, pushing the British back to positions at the Gazala Line by early February,[176] followed by a temporary lull in combat which Germany used to prepare for their upcoming offensives.[177] Concerns the Japanese might use bases in Vichy-held Madagascar caused the British to invade the island in early May 1942.[178] An Axis offensive in Libya forced an Allied retreat deep inside Egypt until Axis forces were stopped at El Alamein.[179] On the Continent, raids of Allied commandos on strategic targets, culminating in the disastrous Dieppe Raid,[180] demonstrated the Western Allies' inability to launch an invasion of continental Europe without much better preparation, equipment, and operational security.[181]

In August 1942, the Allies succeeded in repelling a second attack against El Alamein[182] and, at a high cost, managed to deliver desperately needed supplies to the besieged Malta.[183] A few months later, the Allies commenced an attack of their own in Egypt, dislodging the Axis forces and beginning a drive west across Libya.[184] This attack was followed up shortly after by Anglo-American landings in French North Africa, which resulted in the region joining the Allies.[185] Hitler responded to the French colony's defection by ordering the occupation of Vichy France;[185] although Vichy forces did not resist this violation of the armistice, they managed to scuttle their fleet to prevent its capture by German forces.[186] The now pincered Axis forces in Africa withdrew into Tunisia, which was conquered by the Allies in May 1943.[187]

In early 1943 the British and Americans began the "Combined Bomber Offensive", a strategic bombing campaign against Germany. The goals were to disrupt the German war economy, reduce German morale, and "de-house" the German civilian population. By the end of the war most German cities would be reduced to rubble and 7,500,000 Germans made homeless.[188]

Allies gain momentum (1943–44)

Following the Guadalcanal Campaign, the Allies initiated several operations against Japan in the Pacific. In May 1943, Allied forces were sent to eliminate Japanese forces from the Aleutians,[189] and soon after began major operations to isolate Rabaul by capturing surrounding islands, and to breach the Japanese Central Pacific perimeter at the Gilbert and Marshall Islands.[190] By the end of March 1944, the Allies had completed both of these objectives, and additionally neutralised the major Japanese base at Truk in the Caroline Islands. In April, the Allies then launched an operation to retake Western New Guinea.[191]

In the Soviet Union, both the Germans and the Soviets spent the spring and early summer of 1943 making preparations for large offensives in Central Russia. On 4 July 1943, Germany attacked Soviet forces around the Kursk Bulge. Within a week, German forces had exhausted themselves against the Soviets' deeply echeloned and well-constructed defences[192] and, for the first time in the war, Hitler cancelled the operation before it had achieved tactical or operational success.[193] This decision was partially affected by the Western Allies' invasion of Sicily launched on 9 July which, combined with previous Italian failures, resulted in the ousting and arrest of Mussolini later that month.[194] Also in July 1943 the British firebombed Hamburg killing over 40,000 people.

Red Army troops following T-34 tanks, in a counter-offensive on German positions, at the Battle of Kursk, August 1943

On 12 July 1943, the Soviets launched their own counter-offensives, thereby dispelling any hopes of the German Army for victory or even stalemate in the east. The Soviet victory at Kursk heralded the downfall of German superiority,[195] giving the Soviet Union the initiative on the Eastern Front.[196][197] The Germans attempted to stabilise their eastern front along the hastily fortified Panther-Wotan line, however, the Soviets broke through it at Smolensk and by the Lower Dnieper Offensives.[198]

On 3 September 1943, the Western Allies invaded the Italian mainland, following an Italian armistice with the Allies.[199] Germany responded by disarming Italian forces, seizing military control of Italian areas,[200] and creating a series of defensive lines.[201] German special forces then rescued Mussolini, who then soon established a new client state in German occupied Italy named the Italian Social Republic,[202] causing an Italian civil war. The Western Allies fought through several lines until reaching the main German defensive line in mid-November.[203]

German operations in the Atlantic also suffered. By May 1943, as Allied counter-measures became increasingly effective, the resulting sizeable German submarine losses forced a temporary halt of the German Atlantic naval campaign.[204] In November 1943, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met with Chiang Kai-shek in Cairo and then with Joseph Stalin in Tehran.[205] The former conference determined the post-war return of Japanese territory,[206] while the latter included agreement that the Western Allies would invade Europe in 1944 and that the Soviet Union would declare war on Japan within three months of Germany's defeat.[207]

Indian soldiers from the British Commonwealth Forces, in the Ngakyeduak Pass; Burma Campaign, 6 February 1944

From November 1943, during the seven-week Battle of Changde, the Chinese forced Japan to fight a costly war of attrition, while awaiting Allied relief.[208][209][210] In January 1944, the Allies launched a series of attacks in Italy against the line at Monte Cassino and attempted to outflank it with landings at Anzio.[211] By the end of January, a major Soviet offensive expelled German forces from the Leningrad region,[212] ending the longest and most lethal siege in history.

The following Soviet offensive was halted on the pre-war Estonian border by the German Army Group North aided by Estonians hoping to re-establish national independence. This delay slowed subsequent Soviet operations in the Baltic Sea region.[213] By late May 1944, the Soviets had liberated Crimea, largely expelled Axis forces from Ukraine, and made incursions into Romania, which were repulsed by the Axis troops.[214] The Allied offensives in Italy had succeeded and, at the expense of allowing several German divisions to retreat, on 4 June, Rome was captured.[215]

The Allies experienced mixed fortunes in mainland Asia. In March 1944, the Japanese launched the first of two invasions, an operation against British positions in Assam, India,[216] and soon besieged Commonwealth positions at Imphal and Kohima.[217] In May 1944, British forces mounted a counter-offensive that drove Japanese troops back to Burma,[217] and Chinese forces that had invaded northern Burma in late 1943 besieged Japanese troops in Myitkyina.[218] The second Japanese invasion attempted to destroy China's main fighting forces, secure railways between Japanese-held territory and capture Allied airfields.[219] By June, the Japanese had conquered the province of Henan and begun a renewed attack against Changsha in the Hunan province.[220]

Allies close in (1944)

American troops approaching Omaha Beach, during the Invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944

On 6 June 1944 (known as D-Day), after three years of Soviet pressure,[221] the Western Allies invaded northern France. After reassigning several Allied divisions from Italy, they also attacked southern France.[222] These landings were successful, and led to the defeat of the German Army units in France. Paris was liberated by the local resistance assisted by the Free French Forces on 25 August[223] and the Western Allies continued to push back German forces in Western Europe during the latter part of the year. An attempt to advance into northern Germany spearheaded by a major airborne operation in the Netherlands ended with a failure.[224] After that, the Western Allies slowly pushed into Germany, unsuccessfully trying to cross the Rur river in a large offensive. In Italy the Allied advance also slowed down, when they ran into the last major German defensive line.

On 22 June, the Soviets launched a strategic offensive in Belarus (known as "Operation Bagration") that resulted in the almost complete destruction of the German Army Group Centre.[225] Soon after that, another Soviet strategic offensive forced German troops from Western Ukraine and Eastern Poland. The successful advance of Soviet troops prompted resistance forces in Poland to initiate several uprisings, though the largest of these, in Warsaw, as well as a Slovak Uprising in the south, were not assisted by the Soviets and were put down by German forces.[226] The Red Army's strategic offensive in eastern Romania cut off and destroyed the considerable German troops there and triggered a successful coup d'état in Romania and in Bulgaria, followed by those countries' shift to the Allied side.[227]

Filipino volunteers carrying supplies to the US 1st Cavalry Division during the Battle of Leyte, 1944

In September 1944, Soviet Red Army troops advanced into Yugoslavia and forced the rapid withdrawal of the German Army Groups E and F in Greece, Albania and Yugoslavia to rescue them from being cut off.[228] By this point, the Communist-led Partisans under Marshal Josip Broz Tito, who had led an increasingly successful guerrilla campaign against the occupation since 1941, controlled much of the territory of Yugoslavia and were engaged in delaying efforts against the German forces further south. In northern Serbia, the Red Army, with limited support from Bulgarian forces, assisted the Partisans in a joint liberation of the capital city of Belgrade on 20 October. A few days later, the Soviets launched a massive assault against German-occupied Hungary that lasted until the fall of Budapest in February 1945.[229] In contrast with impressive Soviet victories in the Balkans, the bitter Finnish resistance to the Soviet offensive in the Karelian Isthmus denied the Soviets occupation of Finland and led to the signing of Soviet-Finnish armistice on relatively mild conditions,[230][231] with a subsequent shift to the Allied side by Finland.

By the start of July, Commonwealth forces in Southeast Asia had repelled the Japanese sieges in Assam, pushing the Japanese back to the Chindwin River[232] while the Chinese captured Myitkyina. In China, the Japanese were having greater successes, having finally captured Changsha in mid-June and the city of Hengyang by early August.[233] Soon after, they further invaded the province of Guangxi, winning major engagements against Chinese forces at Guilin and Liuzhou by the end of November[234] and successfully linking up their forces in China and Indochina by the middle of December.[235]

In the Pacific, American forces continued to press back the Japanese perimeter. In mid-June 1944 they began their offensive against the Mariana and Palau islands, and decisively defeated Japanese forces in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. These defeats led to the resignation of the Japanese Prime Minister, Hideki Tōjō, and provided the United States with air bases to launch intensive heavy bomber attacks on the Japanese home islands. In late October, American forces invaded the Filipino island of Leyte; soon after, Allied naval forces scored another large victory during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, one of the largest naval battles in history.[236]

Axis collapse, Allied victory (1944–45)

On 16 December 1944, Germany attempted its last desperate measure for success on the Western Front by using most of its remaining reserves to launch a massive counter-offensive in the Ardennes to attempt to split the Western Allies, encircle large portions of Western Allied troops and capture their primary supply port at Antwerp in order to prompt a political settlement.[237] By January, the offensive had been repulsed with no strategic objectives fulfilled.[237] In Italy, the Western Allies remained stalemated at the German defensive line. In mid-January 1945, the Soviets and Poles attacked in Poland, pushing from the Vistula to the Oder river in Germany, and overran East Prussia.[238] On 4 February, US, British, and Soviet leaders met for the Yalta Conference. They agreed on the occupation of post-war Germany, and on when the Soviet Union would join the war against Japan.[239]

In February, the Soviets invaded Silesia and Pomerania, while Western Allies entered Western Germany and closed to the Rhine river. By March, the Western Allies crossed the Rhine north and south of the Ruhr, encircling the German Army Group B,[240] while the Soviets advanced to Vienna. In early April, the Western Allies finally pushed forward in Italy and swept across Western Germany, while Soviet and Polish forces stormed Berlin in late April. The American and Soviet forces linked up on Elbe river on 25 April. On 30 April 1945, the Reichstag was captured, signalling the military defeat of the Third Reich.[241]

Several changes in leadership occurred during this period. On 12 April, President Roosevelt died and was succeeded by Harry Truman. Benito Mussolini was killed by Italian partisans on 28 April.[242] Two days later, Hitler committed suicide, and was succeeded by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz.[243]

The German Reichstag after its capture by the Allies, 3 June 1945

German forces surrendered in Italy on 29 April. Total and unconditional surrender was signed on 7 May, to be effective by the end of 8 May.[244] German Army Group Centre resisted in Prague until 11 May.[245]

In the Pacific theatre, American forces accompanied by the forces of the Philippine Commonwealth advanced in the Philippines, clearing Leyte by the end of April 1945. They landed on Luzon in January 1945 and captured Manila in March following a battle which reduced the city to ruins. Fighting continued on Luzon, Mindanao, and other islands of the Philippines until the end of the war.[246] On the night of 9–10 March, B-29 bombers of the US Army Air Forces struck Tokyo with incendiary bombs, which killed 100,000 people within a few hours. Over the next five months, American bombers firebombed 66 other Japanese cities, causing the untold numbers of destruction of buildings and the deaths between 350,000-500,000 Japanese civilians.[247]

Japanese foreign affairs minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the Japanese Instrument of Surrender on board the USS Missouri, 2 September 1945

In May 1945, Australian troops landed in Borneo, overrunning the oilfields there. British, American, and Chinese forces defeated the Japanese in northern Burma in March, and the British pushed on to reach Rangoon by 3 May.[248] Chinese forces started to counterattack in Battle of West Hunan that occurred between 6 April and 7 June 1945. American forces also moved towards Japan, taking Iwo Jima by March, and Okinawa by the end of June.[249] At the same time American bombers were destroying Japanese cities, American submarines cut off Japanese imports, drastically reducing Japan's ability to supply its overseas forces.[250]

On 11 July, Allied leaders met in Potsdam, Germany. They confirmed earlier agreements about Germany,[251] and reiterated the demand for unconditional surrender of all Japanese forces by Japan, specifically stating that "the alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction".[252] During this conference the United Kingdom held its general election, and Clement Attlee replaced Churchill as Prime Minister.[253]

As Japan continued to ignore the Potsdam terms issued to them on 27 July, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in early August. Like the Japanese cities previously bombed by American airmen, the US and its allies justified the atomic bombings as military necessity in order to avoid invading the Japanese home islands which would cost the lives of between 250,000-500,000 Allied troops and millions of Japanese troops and civilians.[254] Between the two bombings, the Soviets, pursuant to the Yalta agreement, invaded Japanese-held Manchuria, and quickly defeated the Kwantung Army, which was the largest Japanese fighting force.[255][256] The Red Army also captured Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands. On 15 August 1945 Japan surrendered, with the surrender documents finally signed aboard the deck of the American battleship USS Missouri on 2 September 1945, ending the war.[257]


Ruins of Warsaw in January 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city, by the occupying German forces. Over 85% of the buildings in the city were destroyed, and 200,000 civilians murdered in massacres
Post-war Soviet territorial expansion; resulted in Central European border changes, the creation of a Communist Bloc, and start of the Cold War

The Allies established occupation administrations in Austria and Germany. The former became a neutral state, non-aligned with any political bloc. The latter was divided into western and eastern occupation zones controlled by the Western Allies and the USSR, accordingly. A denazification program in Germany led to the prosecution of Nazi war criminals and the removal of ex-Nazis from power, although this policy moved towards amnesty and re-integration of ex-Nazis into West German society.[258]

Germany lost a quarter of its pre-war (1937) territory, the eastern territories: Silesia, Neumark and most of Pomerania were taken over by Poland; East Prussia was divided between Poland and the USSR, followed by an expulsion of the 9 million Germans from these provinces, as well as of 3 million Germans from the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, to Germany. By the 1950s, every fifth West German was a refugee from the east. The USSR took over the Polish provinces east of the Curzon line, from which 3 million Poles were expelled;[259] North-Eastern Romania,[260][261] parts of eastern Finland,[262] and the three Baltic states were also incorporated into the USSR.[263][264]

In an effort to maintain peace,[265] the Allies formed the United Nations, which officially came into existence on 24 October 1945,[266] and adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, as a common standard for all member nations.[267] The great powers that were the victors of the war—the United States, Soviet Union, China, Britain, and France—formed the permanent members of the UN's Security Council.[3] The five permanent members remain so to the present, although there have been two seat changes, between the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China in 1971, and between the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union had begun to deteriorate even before the war was over.[268]

Germany had been de facto divided, and two independent states, Federal Republic of Germany and German Democratic Republic[269] were created within the borders of Allied and Soviet occupation zones, accordingly. The rest of Europe was also divided onto Western and Soviet spheres of influence.[270] Most eastern and central European countries fell into the Soviet sphere, which led to establishment of Communist led regimes, with full or partial support of the Soviet occupation authorities. As a result, Poland, Hungary, East Germany,[271] Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Albania[272] became Soviet Satellite states. Communist Yugoslavia conducted a fully independent policy, causing tension with the USSR.[273]

Post-war division of the world was formalised by two international military alliances, the United States-led NATO and the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact;[274] the long period of political tensions and military competition between them, the Cold War, would be accompanied by an unprecedented arms race and proxy wars.[275]

In Asia, the United States led the occupation of Japan and administrated Japan's former islands in the Western Pacific, while the Soviets annexed Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.[276] Korea, formerly under Japanese rule, was divided and occupied by the US in the South and the Soviet Union in the North between 1945 and 1948. Separate republics emerged on both sides of the 38th parallel in 1948, each claiming to be the legitimate government for all of Korea, which led ultimately to the Korean War.[277]

In China, nationalist and communist forces resumed the civil war in June 1946. Communist forces were victorious and established the People's Republic of China on the mainland, while nationalist forces retreated to Taiwan in 1949.[278] In the Middle East, the Arab rejection of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine and the creation of Israel marked the escalation of the Arab-Israeli conflict. While European colonial powers attempted to retain some or all of their colonial empires, their losses of prestige and resources during the war rendered this unsuccessful, leading to decolonisation.[279][280]

The global economy suffered heavily from the war, although participating nations were affected differently. The US emerged much richer than any other nation; it had a baby boom and by 1950 its gross domestic product per person was much higher than that of any of the other powers and it dominated the world economy.[281] The UK and US pursued a policy of industrial disarmament in Western Germany in the years 1945–1948.[282] Due to international trade interdependencies this led to European economic stagnation and delayed European recovery for several years.[283][284]

Recovery began with the mid-1948 currency reform in Western Germany, and was sped up by the liberalisation of European economic policy that the Marshall plan (1948–1951) both directly and indirectly caused.[285][286] The post 1948 West German recovery has been called the German economic miracle.[287] Also the Italian[288] and French economies rebounded.[289] By contrast, the United Kingdom was in a state of economic ruin,[290] and although it received a quarter of the total Marshall Plan assistance, more than any other European country,[291] continued relative economic decline for decades.[292]

The Soviet Union, despite enormous human and material losses, also experienced rapid increase in production in the immediate post-war era.[293] Japan experienced incredibly rapid economic growth, becoming one of the most powerful economies in the world by the 1980s.[294] China returned to its pre-war industrial production by 1952.[295]


Casualties and war crimes

World War II deaths

Estimates for the total casualties of the war vary, because many deaths went unrecorded. Most suggest that some 75 million people died in the war, including about 20 million soldiers and 40 million civilians.[296][297][298] Many civilians died because of disease, starvation, massacres, mass-bombing, and deliberate genocide. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people during the war,[299] including 8.7 million military and 19 million civilian deaths. The largest portion of military dead were ethnic Russians (5,756,000), followed by ethnic Ukrainians (1,377,400).[300] One of every four Soviet citizens was killed or wounded in that war.[301] Germany sustained 5.3 million military losses, mostly on the Eastern Front and during the final battles in Germany.[302]

Of the total deaths in World War II, approximately 85 percent—mostly Soviet and Chinese—were on the Allied side and 15 percent on the Axis side. Many of these deaths were caused by war crimes committed by German and Japanese forces in occupied territories. An estimated 11[303] to 17 million[304] civilians died as a direct or indirect result of Nazi ideological policies, including the systematic genocide of around six million Jews during the Holocaust along with a further five million ethnic Poles and other Slavs, including Ukrainians and Belarusians,[305] Roma, homosexuals and other ethnic and minority groups.[304]

Roughly 7.5 million civilians died in China under Japanese occupation.[306] Hundreds of thousands (varying estimates) of ethnic Serbs, along with gypsies and Jews, were murdered by the Axis-aligned Croatian Ustaše in Yugoslavia,[307] with retribution-related killings of Croatian civilians just after the war ended.

Chinese civilians being buried alive by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army, during the Nanking Massacre, in December 1937

The best-known Japanese atrocity was the Nanking Massacre, in which several hundred thousand Chinese civilians were raped and murdered.[308] Between 3 million to more than 10 million civilians, mostly Chinese, were killed by the Japanese occupation forces.[309] Mitsuyoshi Himeta reported 2.7 million casualties occurred during the Sankō Sakusen. General Yasuji Okamura implemented the policy in Heipei and Shantung.[310]

The Axis forces employed limited biological and chemical weapons. The Imperial Japanese Army used a variety of such weapons during their invasion and occupation of China (see Unit 731)[311][312] and in early conflicts against the Soviets.[313] Both the Germans and Japanese tested such weapons against civilians[314] and, in some cases, on prisoners of war.[315]

While many of the Axis's acts were brought to trial in the world's first international tribunals,[316] incidents caused by the Allies were not. Examples of such Allied actions include population transfers in the Soviet Union, Operation Keelhaul,[317] expulsion of Germans after World War II,[318] rape during the occupation of Germany,[319] and the Soviet Union's Katyn massacre, for which Germans faced counter-accusations of responsibility. Large numbers of famine deaths can also be partially attributed to the war, such as the Bengal famine of 1943 and the Vietnamese famine of 1944–45.[320] Brutalised by war and fuelled by racist propaganda, many American soldiers in the Pacific mutilated corpses and kept grisly war trophies.[321]

It has been suggested by some historians, e.g. Jörg Friedrich, that the mass-bombing of civilian areas in enemy territory, including Tokyo and most notably the German cities of Dresden, Hamburg and Cologne by Western Allies, which resulted in the destruction of more than 160 cities and the deaths of more than 600,000 German civilians be considered as war crimes.[322] However, no positive or specific customary international humanitarian law with respect to aerial warfare existed before and during World War II.[323]

Concentration camps and slave work

Hungarian Jews after disembarking at the German run Nazi Auschwitz concentration camp. To be sent "right"; meant a person was chosen to work as forced labour. To be sent "left"; meant a person was immediately ordered to the gas chambers, May 1944

The German, Nazis were responsible for The Holocaust, the killing of approximately six million Jews (overwhelmingly Ashkenazim), as well as two million ethnic Poles and four million others who were deemed "unworthy of life" (including the disabled and mentally ill, Soviet prisoners of war, homosexuals, Freemasons, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Romani) as part of a programme of deliberate extermination. About 12 million, most of whom were Eastern Europeans, were employed in the German war economy as forced labourers.[324]

In addition to Nazi concentration camps, the Soviet gulags (labour camps) led to the death of citizens of occupied countries such as Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as German prisoners of war (POWs) and even Soviet citizens who had been or were thought to be supporters of the Nazis.[325] Sixty percent of Soviet POWs of the Germans died during the war.[326] Richard Overy gives the number of 5.7 million Soviet POWs. Of those, 57 percent died or were killed, a total of 3.6 million.[327] Soviet ex-POWs and repatriated civilians were treated with great suspicion as potential Nazi collaborators, and some of them were sent to the Gulag upon being checked by the NKVD.[328]

Prisoner identity photograph of a 14 year old Polish girl, sent as forced labour to the Auschwitz concentration camp, in 1942. Of the more than 216,000 children sent to the concentration camp by the Nazis, less than 650 survived until liberation

Japanese prisoner-of-war camps, many of which were used as labour camps, also had high death rates. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East found the death rate of Western prisoners was 27.1 percent (for American POWs, 37 percent),[329] seven times that of POWs under the Germans and Italians.[330] While 37,583 prisoners from the UK, 28,500 from the Netherlands, and 14,473 from United States were released after the surrender of Japan, the number for the Chinese was only 56.[331]

According to historian Zhifen Ju, at least five million Chinese civilians from northern China and Manchukuo were enslaved between 1935 and 1941 by the East Asia Development Board, or Kōain, for work in mines and war industries. After 1942, the number reached 10 million.[332] The US Library of Congress estimates that in Java, between 4 and 10 million romusha (Japanese: "manual laborers"), were forced to work by the Japanese military. About 270,000 of these Javanese labourers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia, and only 52,000 were repatriated to Java.[333]

On 19 February 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, interning about 100,000 Japanese living on the West Coast. Canada had a similar program.[334][335] In addition, 14,000 German and Italian citizens who had been assessed as being security risks were also interned.[336]

In accordance with the Allied agreement made at the Yalta Conference millions of POWs and civilians were used as forced labour by the Soviet Union.[337] In Hungary's case, Hungarians were forced to work for the Soviet Union until 1955.[338]


A mass grave inside the Nazi Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany; where many captured Jewish, Polish, and Soviet inmates were sent to perform forced labour work, and later exterminated

In Europe, occupation came under two forms. In Western, Northern and Central Europe (France, Norway, Denmark, the Low Countries, and the annexed portions of Czechoslovakia) Germany established economic policies through which it collected roughly 69.5 billion reichmarks (27.8 billion US Dollars) by the end of the war; this figure does not include the sizeable plunder of industrial products, military equipment, raw materials and other goods.[339] Thus, the income from occupied nations was over 40 percent of the income Germany collected from taxation, a figure which increased to nearly 40 percent of total German income as the war went on.[340]

In the East, the much hoped for bounties of Lebensraum were never attained as fluctuating front-lines and Soviet scorched earth policies denied resources to the German invaders.[341] Unlike in the West, the Nazi racial policy encouraged excessive brutality against what it considered to be the "inferior people" of Slavic descent; most German advances were thus followed by mass executions.[342] Although resistance groups did form in most occupied territories, they did not significantly hamper German operations in either the East[343] or the West[344] until late 1943.

In Asia, Japan termed nations under its occupation as being part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, essentially a Japanese hegemony which it claimed was for purposes of liberating colonised peoples.[345] Although Japanese forces were originally welcomed as liberators from European domination in many territories, their excessive brutality turned local public opinions against them within weeks.[346] During Japan's initial conquest it captured 4,000,000 barrels (640,000 m3) of oil (~5.5×105 tonnes) left behind by retreating Allied forces, and by 1943 was able to get production in the Dutch East Indies up to 50 million barrels (~6.8×10^6 t), 76 percent of its 1940 output rate.[346]

Home fronts and production

Allied to Axis GDP ratio

In Europe, before the outbreak of the war, the Allies had significant advantages in both population and economics. In 1938, the Western Allies (United Kingdom, France, Poland and British Dominions) had a 30 percent larger population and a 30 percent higher gross domestic product than the European Axis (Germany and Italy); if colonies are included, it then gives the Allies more than a 5:1 advantage in population and nearly 2:1 advantage in GDP.[347] In Asia at the same time, China had roughly six times the population of Japan, but only an 89 percent higher GDP; this is reduced to three times the population and only a 38 percent higher GDP if Japanese colonies are included.[347]

Though the Allies' economic and population advantages were largely mitigated during the initial rapid blitzkrieg attacks of Germany and Japan, they became the decisive factor by 1942, after the United States and Soviet Union joined the Allies, as the war largely settled into one of attrition.[348] While the Allies' ability to out-produce the Axis is often attributed to the Allies having more access to natural resources, other factors, such as Germany and Japan's reluctance to employ women in the labour force,[349] Allied strategic bombing,[350] and Germany's late shift to a war economy[351] contributed significantly. Additionally, neither Germany nor Japan planned to fight a protracted war, and were not equipped to do so.[352] To improve their production, Germany and Japan used millions of slave labourers;[353] Germany used about 12 million people, mostly from Eastern Europe,[324] while Japan pressed more than 18 million people in Far East Asia.[332][333]

Advances in technology and warfare

Nuclear "gadget" being raised to the top of the detonation tower, at the Alamogordo Bombing Range, July 1945. The American Trinity nuclear test in New Mexico, was the culmination of scientific research under the Manhattan Project; headed by the theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer
Emblem of the USACE, Manhattan Project

Aircraft were used for reconnaissance, as fighters, bombers, and ground-support, and each role was advanced considerably. Innovation included airlift (the capability to quickly move limited high-priority supplies, equipment, and personnel);[354] and of strategic bombing (the bombing of enemy industrial and population centers to destroy the enemy's ability to wage war).[355] Anti-aircraft weaponry also advanced, including defences such as radar and surface-to-air artillery, such as the German 88 mm gun. The use of the jet aircraft was pioneered and, though late introduction meant it had little impact, it led to jets becoming standard in worldwide air forces.[356]

Advances were made in nearly every aspect of naval warfare, most notably with aircraft carriers and submarines. Although aeronautical warfare had relatively little success at the start of the war, actions at Taranto, Pearl Harbor, and the Coral Sea established the carrier as the dominant capital ship in place of the battleship.[357][358][359]

In the Atlantic, escort carriers proved to be a vital part of Allied convoys, increasing the effective protection radius and helping to close the Mid-Atlantic gap.[360] Carriers were also more economical than battleships due to the relatively low cost of aircraft[361] and their not requiring to be as heavily armoured.[362] Submarines, which had proved to be an effective weapon during the First World War[363] were anticipated by all sides to be important in the second. The British focused development on anti-submarine weaponry and tactics, such as sonar and convoys, while Germany focused on improving its offensive capability, with designs such as the Type VII submarine and wolfpack tactics.[364] Gradually, improving Allied technologies such as the Leigh light, hedgehog, squid, and homing torpedoes proved victorious.

Land warfare changed from the static front lines of World War I to increased mobility and combined arms. The tank, which had been used predominantly for infantry support in the First World War, had evolved into the primary weapon.[365] In the late 1930s, tank design was considerably more advanced than it had been during World War I,[366] and advances continued throughout the war in increasing speed, armour and firepower.

At the start of the war, most commanders thought enemy tanks should be met by tanks with superior specifications.[367] This idea was challenged by the poor performance of the relatively light early tank guns against armour, and German doctrine of avoiding tank-versus-tank combat. This, along with Germany's use of combined arms, were among the key elements of their highly successful blitzkrieg tactics across Poland and France.[365] Many means of destroying tanks, including indirect artillery, anti-tank guns (both towed and self-propelled), mines, short-ranged infantry antitank weapons, and other tanks were utilised.[367] Even with large-scale mechanisation, infantry remained the backbone of all forces,[368] and throughout the war, most infantry were equipped similarly to World War I.[369]

The portable machine gun spread, a notable example being the German MG42, and various submachine guns which were suited to close combat in urban and jungle settings.[369] The assault rifle, a late war development incorporating many features of the rifle and submachine gun, became the standard postwar infantry weapon for most armed forces.[370][371]

Most major belligerents attempted to solve the problems of complexity and security presented by using large codebooks for cryptography with the use of ciphering machines, the most well known being the German Enigma machine.[372] SIGINT (signals intelligence) was the countering process of decryption, with the notable examples being the Allied breaking of Japanese naval codes[373] and British Ultra, a pioneering method for decoding Enigma benefiting from information given to Britain by the Polish Cipher Bureau, which had been decoding early versions of Enigma for seven years before the war.[374] Another aspect of military intelligence was the use of deception, which the Allies used to great effect, such as in operations Mincemeat and Bodyguard.[373][375] Other technological and engineering feats achieved during, or as a result of, the war include the world's first programmable computers (Z3, Colossus, and ENIAC), guided missiles and modern rockets, the Manhattan Project's development of nuclear weapons, operations research and the development of artificial harbours and oil pipelines under the English Channel.[376]

List of all War Declarations and other outbreakes of hostilities

Regarding type of war outbreaks (fourth column): A = Attack without a declaration of war, U = State of war emerged through ultimatum, WD = State of war emerged after formal declaration of war, D = Diplomatic breakdown leading to a state of war. In some cases a diplomatic breakdown later led to a state of war. Such cases are mentioned in the comments.

DateAttacking Nation(s)Attacked Nation(s)TypeComments
1939-09-01 GermanyPoland A
1939-09-03 United Kingdom, FranceGermany U European press used "World War" for the first time.
1939-09-03 Australia, New ZealandGermany WD
1939-09-06 South AfricaGermany WD
1939-09-10 CanadaGermany WD
1939-09-17 Soviet UnionPoland A
1939-11-30 Soviet UnionFinland A Diplomatic breakdown day before
1940-04-09 GermanyDenmark, Norway A
1940-05-15 GermanyBelgium, Netherlands WD The German offensive in western Europe
1940-06-10 ItalyFrance, United Kingdom WD At a time when France already was about to fall
1940-06-10 CanadaItaly WD
1940-06-11 South Africa, Australia, New ZealandItaly WD
1940-06-12 EgyptItaly D
1940-07-04 France*United Kingdom D *France had fallen at this time. Also see special comment after the table.
1940-10-28 ItalyGreece U
1941-04-06 GermanyGreece WD
1941-04-06 Germany, BulgariaYuogoslavia A
1941-04-06 ItalyYugoslavia WD
1941-04-10 HungaryYuogoslavia A
1941-04-23 GreeceBulgaria D
1941-06-22 Germany*, Italy, RomaniaSoviet Union WD *The German declaration of war was given at the time of the attack[377]
1941-06-24 DenmarkSoviet Union D
1941-06-25 FinlandSoviet Union A Second war between these nations.
1941-06-27 HungarySoviet Union WD Diplomatic breakdown 1941-06-24
1941-06-30 FranceSoviet Union D
1941-12-07 United KingdomRomania, Hungary, Finland U Dipl. breakdowns 1941-02-11,1941-04-07 and 1941-08-01
1941-12-07 JapanUnited States A WD with Japanese eyes and war traditions. A western WD came the day after.
1941-12-08 JapanUnited Kingdom WD
1941-12-08 Canada, South AfricaJapan WD
1941-12-08 ChinaGermany*, Italy*, Japan WD *Diplomatic breakdown 1941-07-02
1941-12-09 Australia, New ZealandJapan WD
1941-12-11 Germany, ItalyUnited States WD
1941-12-12 RomaniaUnited States WD
1941-12-13 BulgariaUnited Kingdom, United States WD
1941-12-13 HungaryUnited States WD
1942-01-24 United StatesDenmark D
1942-05-28 MexicoGermany, Italy, Japan WD Diplomatic breakdowns in all three cases 1941
1942-08-22 BrazilGermany, Italy WD Diplomatic breakdowns 1942-01-20 and 1942-01-28
1942-11-09 FranceUnited States D
1943-01-20 ChileGermany, Japan, Italy D
1943-09-09 IranGermany WD Diplomatic breakdown in 1941
1943-10-13 ItalyGermany WD After the fall of Mussolini, Italy changed side
1944-01-10 ArgentinaGermany, Japan D
1944-06-30 United StatesFinland D
1944-08-04 TurkeyGermany D Turkey never got involved in the war, but a state of war against Germany existed from this date.
1944-08-23 RomaniaGermany WD Like Italy, Romania also changed side.
1944-09-05 Soviet UnionBulgaria WD
1944-09-07 BulgariaGermany D
1945-02-24 EgyptGermany*, Japan WD *Diplomatic breakdown already 1939
1945-04-03 FinlandGermany WD Diplomatic breakdown in 1944, last outbreak in Europe.
1945-07-06 BrazilJapan WD
1945-07-17 ItalyJapan WD
1945-08-08 Soviet UnionJapan WD Last outbreak of war during the Second World War.

Regarding 1940-07-04 and France vs United Kingdom diplomatic breakdown. After the Fall of France the Germans split France in two parts (until 1942), the occupied North & Atlantic coast and the unoccupied Vichy France. The day before 1940-07-03, United Kingdom attacked the French Navy, where it did not surrender. However the United Kingdom didn't declare war. This led however to a French diplomatic breakdown and a state of war.


See also



  1. In 1939, in agreement with Germany, the Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland. In the winter of 1939–40, it also invaded neutral Finland. The Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations for its invasion of Finland.
  2. China and Japan had been at war since 1937.
  3. After the fall of France in June 1940, French loyalties were divided between the Vichy government (which was officially neutral) and Free France (which continued to fight against the Axis). Free France was eventually recognised by the Allies as the legitimate French government and took part in the liberation.
  4. Czechoslovakia collapsed in the face of German threats in March 1939. In 1941 a Czechoslovak government-in-exile was formed in London and recognised by the British. It contributed troops to Britain's war effort.
  5. Ethiopia was annexed by Italy after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War in 1936. In 1941 it was liberated by the Allies and its emperor restored. It adhered to the Declaration by United Nations in July 1942.
  6. In April 1940 Germany conquered Denmark in a very brief campaign. The Danish government remained in place, but ceased to cooperate with Germany after August 1943 and was dissolved. In the aftermath of Germany's capitulation, Denmark was recognised as one of the United Nations.
  7. Though Iran was officially neutral, according to the Allies its monarch Rezā Shāh was friendly toward the Axis powers and was deposed during the subsequent occupation and replaced with his young son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. After Mohammadreza Pahlavi, iran joined to Allies of World War II.
  8. China and Japan had been at war since 1937.
  9. Italy signed an armistice in September 1943 and thereafter the royal government fought with the Allies while an Axis republican government was established in the north.


  1. Sommerville 2008, p. 5.
  2. Barrett & Shyu 2001, p. 6.
  3. 3.0 3.1 The UN Security Council, retrieved 15 May 2012 
  4. Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council; José Manuel Durão Barroso, President of the European Commission (10 December 2012). "From War to Peace: A European Tale". Nobel Lecture by the European Union. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
  5. Förster & Gessler 2005, p. 64.
  6. Ben-Horin 1943, p. 169; Taylor 1979, p. 124; Yisreelit, Hevrah Mizrahit (1965). Asian and African Studies, p. 191.

    For 1941 see Taylor 1961, p. vii; Kellogg, William O (2003). American History the Easy Way. Barron's Educational Series. p. 236 ISBN 0-7641-1973-7.

    There is also the viewpoint that both World War I and World War II are part of the same "European Civil War" or "Second Thirty Years War": Canfora 2006, p. 155; Prins 2002, p. 11.

  7. Beevor 2012, p. 10.
  8. Masaya 1990, p. 4.
  9. "History of German-American Relations » 1989–1994 – Reunification » "Two-plus-Four-Treaty": Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, September 12, 1990". Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
  10. Ingram 2006, pp. 76–8
  11. Kantowicz 1999, p. 149.
  12. Davies 2008, pp. 134–140.
  13. Shaw 2000, p. 35.
  14. Bullock 1990, p. 265.
  15. Preston 1998, p. 104.
  16. Myers & Peattie 1987, p. 458.
  17. Smith & Steadman 2004, p. 28.
  18. Coogan 1993: "Although some Chinese troops in the Northeast managed to retreat south, others were trapped by the advancing Japanese Army and were faced with the choice of resistance in defiance of orders, or surrender. A few commanders submitted, receiving high office in the puppet government, but others took up arms against the invader. The forces they commanded were the first of the volunteer armies."
  19. Brody 1999, p. 4.
  20. Dawood & Mitra 2012.
  21. Zalampas 1989, p. 62.
  22. Mandelbaum 1988, p. 96; Record 2005, p. 50.
  23. Schmitz 2000, p. 124.
  24. Kitson 2001, p. 231.
  25. Adamthwaite 1992, p. 52.
  26. Graham 2005, p. 110.
  27. Busky 2002, p. 10.
  28. Barker 1971, pp. 131–2.
  29. Beevor 2006, pp. 258–60.
    Tony Judt said that the "communist strategy in Spain turns out to have been a dry run for the seizure of power in Eastern Europe after 1945." See Judt & Snyder 2012, p. 190.
  30. Budiansky 2004, pp. 209–11.
  31. Payne 2008.
  32. Eastman 1986, pp. 547–51.
  33. Hsu & Chang 1971, pp. 221–230.
  34. Eastman 1986, p. 566.
  35. Taylor 2009, pp. 150–2.
  36. Sella 1983, pp. 651–87.
  37. Chaney 1996, p. 76.
  38. Collier & Pedley 2000, p. 144.
  39. Kershaw 2001, pp. 121–2.
  40. Kershaw 2001, p. 157.
  41. Davies 2008, pp. 143–4.
  42. Lowe & Marzari 2002, p. 330.
  43. Dear & Foot 2001, p. 234.
  44. Shore 2003, p. 108.
  45. Dear & Foot 2001, p. 608.
  46. Minutes of the conference between the Fuehrer and the Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Count Ciano, in the presence of the Reich Foreign Minister of Obersalzberg on 12 August 1939 in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression Volume IV Document No. 1871-PS
  47. TheGerman Campaign In Poland (1939)
  48. 48.0 48.1 "Major international events of 1939, with explanation". Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  49. Evans 2008, pp. 1–2.
  50. Jackson 2006, p. 58.
  51. Weinberg 2005, pp. 64–5.
  52. Keegan 1997, p. 35.
    Cienciala 2010, p. 128, observes that, while it is true that Poland was far away, making it difficult for the French and British to provide support, "[f]ew Western historians of World War II ... know that the British had committed to bomb Germany if it attacked Poland, but did not do so except for one raid on the base of Wilhelmshafen. The French, who committed to attack Germany in the west, had no intention of doing so."
  53. Beevor 2012, p. 32; Dear & Foot 2001, pp. 248–9; Roskill 1954, p. 64.
  54. Zaloga 2002, pp. 80, 83.
  55. Hempel 2005, p. 24.
  56. Zaloga 2002, pp. 88–9.
  57. Budiansky 2001, pp. 120–1.
  58. Jowett & Andrew 2002, p. 14.
  59. Smith et al. 2002, p. 24
  60. 60.0 60.1 Bilinsky 1999, p. 9.
  61. 61.0 61.1 Murray & Millett 2001, pp. 55–6.
  62. Spring 1986.
  63. Hanhimäki 1997, p. 12.
  64. Murray & Millett 2001, pp. 57–63.
  65. Commager 2004, p. 9.
  66. Reynolds 2006, p. 76.
  67. Evans 2008, pp. 122–3.
  68. Dear & Foot 2001, p. 436.
    The Americans later relieved the British, with marines arriving in Reykjavik on 7 July 1941 (Schofield 1981, p. 122).
  69. Shirer 1990, pp. 721–3.
  70. Keegan 1997, pp. 59–60.
  71. Regan 2004, p. 152.
  72. Keegan 1997, pp. 66–7.
  73. Overy & Wheatcroft 1999, p. 207.
  74. Umbreit 1991, p. 311.
  75. Brown 2004, p. xxx.
  76. Ferguson 2006, pp. 367, 376, 379, 417.
  77. Snyder 2010, p. 118ff.
  78. Koch 1983.
  79. Roberts 2006, p. 56.
  80. Roberts 2006, p. 59.
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 "Major international events of 1940, with explanation". Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  82. 82.0 82.1 Kelly, Rees & Shuter 1998, p. 38.
  83. The Battle of Britain: The Last Phase THE DEFENSE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 1957
  84. Goldstein 2004, p. 35.
    Aircraft played a highly important role in defeating the German U-boats (Schofield 1981, p. 122).
  85. Steury 1987, p. 209; Zetterling & Tamelander 2009, p. 282.
  86. Dear & Foot 2001, pp. 108–9.
  87. Overy & Wheatcroft 1999, pp. 328–30.
  88. Maingot 1994, p. 52.
  89. Cantril 1940, p. 390.
  90. Coordination With Britain Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Operations
  91. Bilhartz & Elliott 2007, p. 179.
  92. Dear & Foot 2001, p. 877.
  93. Dear & Foot 2001, pp. 745–6.
  94. Clogg 2002, p. 118.
  95. Evans 2008, pp. 146, 152; US Army 1986, pp. 4–6.
  96. Jowett 2001, pp. 9–10.
  97. Jackson 2006, p. 106.
  98. Laurier 2001, pp. 7–8.
  99. Murray & Millett 2001, pp. 263–7.
  100. Macksey 1997, pp. 61–3.
  101. Weinberg 2005, p. 229.
  102. Watson 2003, p. 80.
  103. Jackson 2006, p. 154.
  104. Garver 1988, p. 114.
  105. Weinberg 2005, p. 195
  106. Murray 1983, p. 69.
  107. 107.0 107.1 Klooz, Marle; Wiley, Evelyn (1944), "1941", Events leading up to World War II: Chronological history of certain major international events leading up to and during World War II with the ostensible reasons advanced for their occurrence — 1931–1944, 78th Congress, 2d Session, Humphrey, Richard A, Washington: United States Government Printing Office, House Document No. 541 
  108. Sella 1978.
  109. Kershaw 2007, pp. 66–9.
  110. Steinberg 1995.
  111. Hauner 1978.
  112. Roberts 1995.
  113. Wilt 1981.
  114. Erickson 2003, pp. 114–37.
  115. Glantz 2001, p. 9.
  116. Farrell 1993.
  117. Keeble 1990, p. 29.
  118. Bueno de Mesquita et al. 2003, p. 425
  119. Beevor 2012, p. 220.
  120. Kleinfeld 1983.
  121. Jukes 2001, p. 113.
  122. Glantz 2001, p. 26: "By 1 November [the Wehrmacht] had lost fully 20% of its committed strength (686,000 men), up to 2/3 of its ½-million motor vehicles, and 65 percent of its tanks. The German Army High Command (OKH) rated its 136 divisions as equivalent to 83 full-strength divisions."
  123. Reinhardt 1992, p. 227.
  124. Milward 1964.
  125. Rotundo 1986.
  126. Glantz 2001, p. 26.
  127. Garthoff 1969.
  128. Beevor 1998, pp. 41–2.
    Evans 2008, pp. 213–4, notes that "Zhukov had pushed the Germans back to the point from which they had launched Operation Typhoon two months before. ... Only Stalin's decision to attack all along the front instead of pushing home the advantage by concentrating his forces in an all-out assault against the retreating Germany Army Group Centre prevented the disaster from being even worse."
  129. Overy & Wheatcroft 1999, p. 289.
  130. Morison 2002, p. 60.
  131. Joes 2004, p. 224.
  132. Fairbank & Goldman 2006, p. 320.
  133. Hsu & Chang 1971, p. 30.
  134. Hsu & Chang 1971, p. 33.
  135. Japanese Policy and Strategy, 1931 – July 1941 Strategy and Command: The First Two Years
  136. Anderson 1975, p. 201.
  137. Evans & Peattie 2012, p. 456.
  138. 138.0 138.1 The Decision for War Strategy and Command: The First Two Years
  139. 139.0 139.1 The Showdown With Japan August–December 1941 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941–1942
  140. THE UNITED STATES REPLIES Investigation of the Pearl Harbor attack
  141. Painter 2012, p. 26: "The United States cut off oil exports to Japan in the summer of 1941, forcing Japanese leaders to choose between going to war to seize the oil fields of the Netherlands East Indies or giving in to U.S. pressure."
    Wood 2007, p. 9, listing various military and diplomatic developments, observes that "the threat to Japan was not purely economic."
  142. Lightbody 2004, p. 125.
  143. Weinberg 2005, p. 310.
    Dower 1986, p. 5, calls attention to the fact that "the Allied struggle against Japan exposed the racist underpinnings of the European and American colonial structure. Japan did not invade independent countries in southern Asia. It invaded colonial outposts which the Westerners had dominated for generations, taking absolutely for granted their racial and cultural superiority over their Asian subjects." Dower goes on to note that, before the horrors of Japanese occupation made themselves felt, many Asians responded favourably to the victories of the Imperial Japanese forces.
  144. Wood 2007, pp. 11–2.
  145. 145.0 145.1 Wohlstetter 1962, pp. 341–3.
  146. Dunn 1998, p. 157.
    According to May 1955, p. 155, Churchill stated: "Russian declaration of war on Japan would be greatly to our advantage, provided, but only provided, that Russians are confident that will not impair their Western Front".
  147. Mingst & Karns 2007, p. 22.
  148. The First Full Dress Debate over Strategic Deployment December 1941 – January 1942 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941–1942
  149. The Elimination of the Alternatives July–August 1942 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941–1942
  150. Casablanca—Beginning of an Era: January 1943 Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1943–1944
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