Spielberg at his masterclass at the Cinémathèque Française in January 2012
Steven Allan Spielberg|
December 18, 1946
Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
|Residence||Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
|Education||Saratoga (CA) High School|
|Alma mater||California State University, Long Beach|
Close Encounters of the Third Kind|
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
Raiders of the Lost Ark
Saving Private Ryan
|Net worth||$3.3 billion (2013)|
Amy Irving (m. 1985–89)|
Kate Capshaw (m. 1991)
Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and business magnate. In a career of more than four decades, Spielberg's films have covered many themes and genres. Spielberg's early science-fiction and adventure films were seen as archetypes of modern Hollywood blockbuster filmmaking. In later years, his films began addressing humanistic issues such as the Holocaust, the transatlantic slave trade, war, and terrorism. He is considered one of the most popular and influential filmmakers in the history of cinema. He is also one of the co-founders of DreamWorks movie studio.
Spielberg won the Academy Award for Best Director for Schindler's List (1993) and Saving Private Ryan (1998). Three of Spielberg's films—Jaws (1975), E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), and Jurassic Park (1993)—achieved box office records, each becoming the highest-grossing film made at the time. To date, the unadjusted gross of all Spielberg-directed films exceeds $8.5 billion worldwide. Forbes puts Spielberg's wealth at $3.3 billion.
Spielberg was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, to a Jewish family. His mother, Leah Adler (née Posner, 1920– ), was a restaurateur and concert pianist, and his father, Arnold Spielberg (1917– ), was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. He spent his childhood in Haddon Township, New Jersey, where he saw one of his first films in a theater, as well as in Scottsdale, Arizona. Throughout his early teens, Spielberg made amateur 8 mm "adventure" films with his friends, the first of which he shot at the Pinnacle Peak Patio restaurant in Scottsdale. He charged admission (25 cents) to his home films (which involved the wrecks he staged with his Lionel train set) while his sister sold popcorn.
In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. Years later, Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, "My dad's still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father's movie camera. He said yes, and I got an idea to do a Western. I made it and got my merit badge. That was how it all started." At age thirteen, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute war film he titled Escape to Nowhere which was based on a battle in east Africa. In 1963, at age sixteen, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight (which would later inspire Close Encounters). The film, which had a budget of US$500, was shown in his local cinema and generated a profit of $1. He also made several WWII films inspired by his father's war stories.
Following his parents' divorce, Spielberg moved to Saratoga, California with his father. His three sisters and mother remained in Arizona. After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix, Arizona for three years, he moved back to California where he graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965. It was during this time that he attained the rank of Eagle Scout.
As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. "It isn't something I enjoy admitting," he once said, "but when I was seven, eight, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never really ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times. My grandfather always wore a long black coat, black hat and long white beard. I was embarrassed to invite my friends over to the house, because he might be in a corner davening [praying], and I wouldn't know how to explain this to my WASP friends." Spielberg also said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying in his early life: he later said, "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses. It was horrible."
After moving to California, he applied to attend the film school at University of Southern California School of Theater, Film and Television two separate times, but was unsuccessful. He subsequently became a student at California State University, Long Beach. While attending Long Beach State in the 1960s, Spielberg became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. His actual career began when he returned to Universal Studios as an unpaid, seven-day-a-week intern and guest of the editing department (uncredited). After Spielberg became famous, USC awarded him an honorary degree in 1994, and in 1996 he became a trustee of the university. In 2002, thirty-five years after starting college, Spielberg finished his degree via independent projects at CSULB, and was awarded a B.A. in Film Production and Electronic Arts with an option in Film/Video Production.
As an intern and guest of Universal Studios, Spielberg made his first short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute Amblin' (1968), the title of which Spielberg later took as the name of his production company, Amblin Entertainment. After Sidney Sheinberg (then the vice-president of production for Universal's TV arm) saw the film, Spielberg became the youngest director ever to be signed for a long-term deal with a major Hollywood studio (Universal). He dropped out of Long Beach State in 1969 to take up the television director contract at Universal Studios and began his career as a professional director. In 1969, Variety announced that Spielberg would direct his first full-length film, Malcolm Winkler; written by Claudia Salter, produced by John Orland, with Frank Price being the executive producer. However, because of the difficulty in casting the key male role, the film was not made. Steven Spielberg also attended Brookdale Community College for undergrad.
Early career (1969–75)
His first professional TV job came when he was hired to direct one of the segments for the 1969 pilot episode of Night Gallery. The segment, "Eyes," starred Joan Crawford; she and Spielberg were reportedly close friends until her death. The episode is unusual in his body of work, in that the camerawork is more highly stylized than his later, more "mature" films. After this, and an episode of Marcus Welby, M.D., Spielberg got his first feature-length assignment: an episode of The Name of the Game called "L.A. 2017". This futuristic science fiction episode impressed Universal Studios and they signed him to a short contract. He did another segment on Night Gallery and did some work for shows such as Owen Marshall: Counselor at Law and The Psychiatrist, before landing the first series episode of Columbo (previous episodes were actually TV films).
Based on the strength of his work, Universal signed Spielberg to do four TV films. The first was a Richard Matheson adaptation called Duel. The film is about a psychotic Peterbilt 281 tanker truck driver who chases a terrified driver (Dennis Weaver) of a small Plymouth Valiant and tries to run him off the road. Special praise of this film by the influential British critic Dilys Powell was highly significant to Spielberg's career. Another TV film (Something Evil) was made and released to capitalize on the popularity of The Exorcist, then a major best-selling book which had not yet been released as a film. He fulfilled his contract by directing the TV film-length pilot of a show called Savage, starring Martin Landau. Spielberg's debut full-length feature film was The Sugarland Express, about a married couple who are chased by police as the couple tries to regain custody of their baby. Spielberg's cinematography for the police chase was praised by reviewers, and The Hollywood Reporter stated that "a major new director is on the horizon." However, the film fared poorly at the box office and received a limited release.
Studio producers Richard D. Zanuck and David Brown offered Spielberg the director's chair for Jaws, a thriller-horror film based on the Peter Benchley novel about an enormous killer shark. Spielberg has often referred to the gruelling shoot as his professional crucible. Despite the film's ultimate, enormous success, it was nearly shut down due to delays and budget over-runs. But Spielberg persevered and finished the film. It was an enormous hit, winning three Academy Awards (for editing, original score and sound) and grossing more than $470 million worldwide at the box office. It also set the domestic record for box office gross, leading to what the press described as "Jawsmania." Jaws made Spielberg a household name and one of America's youngest multi-millionaires, allowing him a great deal of autonomy for his future projects. It was nominated for Best Picture and featured Spielberg's first of three collaborations with actor Richard Dreyfuss.
Mainstream breakthrough (1975–93)
Rejecting offers to direct Jaws 2, King Kong and Superman, Spielberg and actor Richard Dreyfuss re-convened to work on a film about UFOs, which became Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977). One of the rare films both written and directed by Spielberg, Close Encounters was a critical and box office hit, giving Spielberg his first Best Director nomination from the Academy as well as earning six other Academy Awards nominations. It won Oscars in two categories (Cinematography, Vilmos Zsigmond, and a Special Achievement Award for Sound Effects Editing, Frank E. Warner). This second blockbuster helped to secure Spielberg's rise. His next film, 1941, a big-budgeted World War II farce, was not nearly as successful and though it grossed over $92.4 million worldwide (and did make a small profit for co-producing studios Columbia and Universal) it was seen as a disappointment, mainly with the critics.
Spielberg then revisited his Close Encounters project and, with financial backing from Columbia Pictures, released Close Encounters: The Special Edition in 1980. For this, Spielberg fixed some of the flaws he thought impeded the original 1977 version of the film and also, at the behest of Columbia, and as a condition of Spielberg revising the film, shot additional footage showing the audience the interior of the mothership seen at the end of the film (a decision Spielberg would later regret as he felt the interior of the mothership should have remained a mystery). Nevertheless, the re-release was a moderate success, while the 2001 DVD release of the film restored the original ending.
Next, Spielberg teamed with Star Wars creator and friend George Lucas on an action adventure film, Raiders of the Lost Ark, the first of the Indiana Jones films. The archaeologist and adventurer hero Indiana Jones was played by Harrison Ford (whom Lucas had previously cast in his Star Wars films as Han Solo). The film was considered an homage to the cliffhanger serials of the Golden Age of Hollywood. It became the biggest film at the box office in 1981, and the recipient of numerous Oscar nominations including Best Director (Spielberg's second nomination) and Best Picture (the second Spielberg film to be nominated for Best Picture). Raiders is still considered a landmark example of the action-adventure genre. The film also led to Ford's casting in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner.
A year later, Spielberg returned to the science fiction genre with E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. It was the story of a young boy and the alien he befriends, who was accidentally left behind by his companions and is attempting to return home. E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial went on to become the top-grossing film of all time. E.T. was also nominated for nine Academy Awards including Best Picture and Best Director.
Between 1982 and 1985, Spielberg produced three high-grossing films: Poltergeist (for which he also co-wrote the screenplay), a big-screen adaptation of The Twilight Zone (for which he directed the segment "Kick The Can"), and The Goonies (Spielberg, executive producer, also wrote the story on which the screenplay was based).Spielberg appeared in a cameo on Cyndi Lauper's music video for the movie's theme song, The Goonies R Good Enough. 
His next directorial feature was the Raiders prequel Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. Teaming up once again with Lucas and Ford, the film was plagued with uncertainty for the material and script. This film and the Spielberg-produced Gremlins led to the creation of the PG-13 rating due to the high level of violence in films targeted at younger audiences. In spite of this, Temple of Doom is rated PG by the MPAA, even though it is the darkest and, possibly, most violent Indy film. Nonetheless, the film was still a huge blockbuster hit in 1984. It was on this project that Spielberg also met his future wife, actress Kate Capshaw.
In 1985, Spielberg released The Color Purple, an adaptation of Alice Walker's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name, about a generation of empowered African-American women during depression-era America. Starring Whoopi Goldberg and future talk-show superstar Oprah Winfrey, the film was a box office smash and critics hailed Spielberg's successful foray into the dramatic genre. Roger Ebert proclaimed it the best film of the year and later entered it into his Great Films archive. The film received eleven Academy Award nominations, including two for Goldberg and Winfrey. However, much to the surprise of many, Spielberg did not get a Best Director nomination. The Color Purple is the second of two Spielberg films not to be scored by John Williams, the first being Duel.
In 1987, as China began opening to Western capital investment, Spielberg shot the first American film in Shanghai since the 1930s, an adaptation of J. G. Ballard's autobiographical novel Empire of the Sun, starring John Malkovich and a young Christian Bale. The film garnered much praise from critics and was nominated for several Oscars, but did not yield substantial box office revenues. Reviewer Andrew Sarris called it the best film of the year and later included it among the best films of the decade. Spielberg was also a co-producer of the 1987 film *batteries not included.
After two forays into more serious dramatic films, Spielberg then directed the third Indiana Jones film, 1989's Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Once again teaming up with Lucas and Ford, Spielberg also cast actor Sean Connery in a supporting role as Indy's father. The film earned generally positive reviews and was another box office success, becoming the highest grossing film worldwide that year; its total box office receipts even topped those of Tim Burton's much-anticipated film Batman, which had been the bigger hit domestically. Also in 1989, he re-united with actor Richard Dreyfuss for the romantic comedy-drama Always, about a daredevil pilot who extinguishes forest fires. Spielberg's first romantic film, Always was only a moderate success and had mixed reviews.
In 1991, Spielberg directed Hook, about a middle-aged Peter Pan, played by Robin Williams, who returns to Neverland. Despite innumerable rewrites and creative changes coupled with mixed reviews, the film proved popular with audiences, making over $300 million worldwide (from a $70 million budget).
In 1993, Spielberg returned to the adventure genre with the film version of Michael Crichton's novel Jurassic Park, about a theme park with genetically engineered dinosaurs. With revolutionary special effects provided by friend George Lucas's Industrial Light & Magic company, the film would eventually become the highest grossing film of all time (at the worldwide box office) with $914.7 million. This would be the third time that one of Spielberg's films became the highest grossing film ever.
Spielberg's next film, Schindler's List, was based on the true story of Oskar Schindler, a man who risked his life to save 1,100 Jews from the Holocaust. Schindler's List earned Spielberg his first Academy Award for Best Director (it also won Best Picture). With the film a huge success at the box office, Spielberg used the profits to set up the Shoah Foundation, a non-profit organization that archives filmed testimony of Holocaust survivors. In 1997, the American Film Institute listed it among the 10 Greatest American Films ever Made (#9) which moved up to (#8) when the list was remade in 2007.
In 1994, Spielberg took a hiatus from directing to spend more time with his family and build his new studio, DreamWorks, with partners Jeffrey Katzenberg and David Geffen. In 1997, he helmed the sequel to 1993's Jurassic Park with The Lost World: Jurassic Park, which generated over $618 million worldwide despite mixed reviews, and was the second biggest hit of 1997 behind James Cameron's Titanic (which topped the original Jurassic Park to become the new recordholder for box office receipts).
His next film, Amistad, was based on a true story (like Schindler's List), specifically about an African slave rebellion. Despite decent reviews from critics, it did not do well at the box office. Spielberg released Amistad under DreamWorks Pictures, which issued all of his films from Amistad until Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in May 2008 (see below).
In 1998, Spielberg re-visited Close Encounters yet again, this time for a more definitive 137-minute "Collector's Edition" that puts more emphasis on the original 1977 release, while adding some elements of the previous 1980 "Special Edition," but deleting the latter version's "Mothership Finale," which Spielberg regretted shooting in the first place, feeling it should have remained ambiguous in the minds of viewers.
His next theatrical release in that same year was the World War II film Saving Private Ryan, about a group of U.S. soldiers led by Capt. Miller (Tom Hanks) sent to bring home a paratrooper whose three older brothers were killed in the same twenty-four hours, June 5–6, of the Normandy landing. The film was a huge box office success, grossing over $481 million worldwide and was the biggest film of the year at the North American box office (worldwide it made second place after Michael Bay's Armageddon). Spielberg won his second Academy Award for his direction. The film's graphic, realistic depiction of combat violence influenced later war films such as Black Hawk Down and Enemy at the Gates. The film was also the first major hit for DreamWorks, which co-produced the film with Paramount Pictures (as such, it was Spielberg's first release from the latter that was not part of the Indiana Jones series). Later, Spielberg and Tom Hanks produced a TV mini-series based on Stephen Ambrose's book Band of Brothers. The ten-part HBO mini-series follows Easy Company of the 101st Airborne Division's 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment. The series won a number of awards at the Golden Globes and the Emmys.
In 2001, Spielberg filmed fellow director and friend Stanley Kubrick's final project, A.I. Artificial Intelligence which Kubrick was unable to begin during his lifetime. A futuristic film about a humanoid android longing for love, A.I. featured groundbreaking visual effects and a multi-layered, allegorical storyline, adapted by Spielberg himself. Though the film's reception in the US was relatively muted, it performed better overseas for a worldwide total box office gross of $236 million.
Spielberg and actor Tom Cruise collaborated for the first time for the futuristic neo-noir Minority Report, based upon the science fiction short story written by Philip K. Dick about a Washington D.C. police captain in the year 2054 who has been foreseen to murder a man he has not yet met. The film received strong reviews with the review tallying website Rotten Tomatoes giving it a 92% approval rating, reporting that 206 out of the 225 reviews they tallied were positive. The film earned over $358 million worldwide. Roger Ebert, who named it the best film of 2002, praised its breathtaking vision of the future as well as for the way Spielberg blended CGI with live-action.
Spielberg's 2002 film Catch Me If You Can is about the daring adventures of a youthful con artist (played by Leonardo DiCaprio). It earned Christopher Walken an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor. The film is known for John Williams' score and its unique title sequence. It was a hit both commercially and critically.
Spielberg collaborated again with Tom Hanks along with Catherine Zeta-Jones and Stanley Tucci in 2004's The Terminal, a warm-hearted comedy about a man of Eastern European descent who is stranded in an airport. It received mixed reviews but performed relatively well at the box office. In 2005, Empire magazine ranked Spielberg number one on a list of the greatest film directors of all time.
Also in 2005, Spielberg directed a modern adaptation of War of the Worlds (a co-production of Paramount and DreamWorks), based on the H. G. Wells book of the same name (Spielberg had been a huge fan of the book and the original 1953 film). It starred Tom Cruise and Dakota Fanning, and, as with past Spielberg films, Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) provided the visual effects. Unlike E.T. and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, which depicted friendly alien visitors, War of the Worlds featured violent invaders. The film was another huge box office smash, grossing over $591 million worldwide.
Spielberg's film Munich, about the events following the 1972 Munich Massacre of Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games, was his second film essaying Jewish relations in the world (the first being Schindler's List). The film is based on Vengeance: The True Story of an Israeli Counter-Terrorist Team, a book by Canadian journalist George Jonas. It was previously adapted into the 1986 made-for-TV film Sword of Gideon. The film received strong critical praise, but underperformed at the U.S. and world box-office; it remains one of Spielberg's most controversial films to date. Munich received five Academy Awards nominations, including Best Picture, Film Editing, Original Music Score (by John Williams), Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Director for Spielberg. It was Spielberg's sixth Best Director nomination and fifth Best Picture nomination.
Spielberg directed Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, which wrapped filming in October 2007 and was released on May 22, 2008. This was his first film not to be released by DreamWorks since 1997. The film received generally positive reviews from critics, and has performed very well in theaters. As of May 10, 2010, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull has grossed $317 million domestically, and over $786 million worldwide.
In early 2009, Spielberg shot the first film in a planned trilogy of motion capture films based on The Adventures of Tintin, written by Belgian artist Hergé, with Peter Jackson. The Adventures of Tintin, was not released until October 2011, due to the complexity of the computer animation involved. The world premiere took place on October 22, 2011 in Brussels, Belgium. The film was released in North American theaters on December 21, 2011, in Digital 3D and IMAX. It received generally positive reviews from critics, and grossed over $373 million worldwide. The Adventures of Tintin won the award for Best Animated Feature Film at the Golden Globe Awards that year. It is the first non-Pixar film to win the award since the category was first introduced. Jackson has been announced to direct the second film, which Spielberg will produce.
Spielberg followed that with War Horse, shot in England in the summer of 2010. It was released just four days after The Adventures of Tintin, on December 25, 2011. The film, based on the novel of the same name written by Michael Morpurgo and published in 1982, follows the long friendship between a British boy and his horse Joey before and during World War I – the novel was also adapted into a hit play in London which is still running there, as well as on Broadway. The film was released and distributed by Disney, with whom DreamWorks has made a 30-picture deal. War Horse received generally positive reviews from critics, and was nominated for six Academy Awards including Best Picture.
Spielberg next directed the historical drama film Lincoln, starring Daniel Day-Lewis as United States President Abraham Lincoln and Sally Field as Mary Todd Lincoln. Based on Doris Kearns Goodwin's bestseller Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln, the film covered the final four months of Lincoln's life. Written by Tony Kushner, the film was shot in Richmond, Virginia, in late 2011, and was released in November 2012 by Disney's Touchstone Pictures label in the United States. The film's international distribution was handled by 20th Century Fox. Upon release, Lincoln received widespread critical acclaim, and was nominated for twelve Academy Awards (the most of any film that year) including Best Picture and Best Director for Spielberg. It won the award for Best Production Design and Day-Lewis won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Lincoln, becoming the first three time winner in that category as well as the first to win for a performance directed by Spielberg.
Since the mid-1980s, Spielberg has increased his role as a film producer. He headed up the production team for several cartoons, including the Warner Brothers hits Tiny Toon Adventures, Animaniacs, Pinky and the Brain, Toonsylvania, and Freakazoid!, for which he collaborated with Jean MacCurdy and Tom Ruegger. Due to his work on these series, in the official titles, most of them say, "Steven Spielberg presents" as well as making numerous cameos on the shows. Spielberg also produced the Don Bluth animated features, An American Tail and The Land Before Time, which were released by Universal Studios. He also served as one of the executive producers of Who Framed Roger Rabbit and its three related shorts (Tummy Trouble, Roller Coaster Rabbit, Trail Mix-Up), which were all released by Disney, under both the Walt Disney Pictures and the Touchstone Pictures banners. He was furthermore, for a short time, the executive producer of the long-running medical drama ER. In 1989, he brought the concept of The Dig to LucasArts. He contributed to the project from that time until 1995 when the game was released. He also collaborated with software publishers Knowledge Adventure on the multimedia game Steven Spielberg's Director's Chair, which was released in 1996. Spielberg appears, as himself, in the game to direct the player. The Spielberg name provided branding for a Lego Moviemaker kit, the proceeds of which went to the Starbright Foundation.
In 1993, Spielberg acted as executive producer for the highly anticipated television series seaQuest DSV; a science fiction series set "in the near future" starring Roy Scheider (who Spielberg had directed in Jaws) and Jonathan Brandis that aired on Sundays at 8:00 pm. on NBC. While the first season was moderately successful, the second season did less well. Spielberg's name no longer appeared in the third season and the show was cancelled midway through it.
Spielberg served as an uncredited executive producer on The Haunting, The Prince of Egypt, Just Like Heaven, Shrek, Road to Perdition, and Evolution. He served as an executive producer for the 1997 film Men in Black, and its sequels, Men in Black II and Men in Black III. In 2005, he served as a producer of Memoirs of a Geisha, an adaptation of the novel by Arthur Golden, a film to which he was previously attached as director. In 2006, Spielberg co-executive produced with famed filmmaker Robert Zemeckis a CGI children's film called Monster House, marking their eighth collaboration since 1990's Back to the Future Part III. He also teamed with Clint Eastwood for the first time in their careers, co-producing Eastwood's Flags of Our Fathers and Letters from Iwo Jima with Robert Lorenz and Eastwood himself. He earned his twelfth Academy Award nomination for the latter film as it was nominated for Best Picture. Spielberg served as executive producer for Disturbia and the Transformers live action film with Brian Goldner, an employee of Hasbro. The film was directed by Michael Bay and written by Roberto Orci and Alex Kurtzman, and Spielberg continued to collaborate on the sequels, Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen and Transformers: Dark of the Moon. In 2011, he produced the J. J. Abrams science fiction thriller film Super 8 for Paramount Pictures.
Other major television series Spielberg produced were Band of Brothers, Taken and The Pacific. He was an executive producer on the critically acclaimed 2005 TV miniseries Into the West which won two Emmy awards, including one for Geoff Zanelli's score. For his 2010 miniseries The Pacific he teamed up once again with co-producer Tom Hanks, with Gary Goetzman also co-producing'. The miniseries is believed to have cost $250 million and is a 10-part war miniseries centered on the battles in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Writer Bruce McKenna, who penned several installments of (Band of Brothers), was the head writer.
In 2007, Steven Spielberg and Mark Burnett co-produced On the Lot a short-lived TV reality show about filmmaking. Despite this, he never gave up working on television. He currently serves as one of the executive producers on United States of Tara, a show created by Academy Award winner Diablo Cody which they developed together (Spielberg is uncredited as creator).
In 2011, Spielberg launched Falling Skies, a science fiction television series, on the TNT network. He developed the series with Robert Rodat and is credited as an executive producer. Spielberg is also producing the Fox TV series Terra Nova. Terra Nova begins in the year 2149 when all life on the planet Earth is threatened with extinction resulting in scientists opening a door that allows people to travel back 85 million years to prehistoric times. Spielberg also produced The River and Smash.
Steven Spielberg had cameo roles in The Blues Brothers, Gremlins, Vanilla Sky, and Austin Powers in Goldmember, as well as small uncredited cameos in a handful of other films, such as a life-station worker in Jaws. He also made numerous cameo roles in the Warner Brothers cartoons he produced, such as Animaniacs, and even made reference to some of his films. Spielberg voiced himself in the film Paul, and in one episode of Tiny Toon Adventures titled Buster and Babs Go Hawaiian.
Involvement in video games
Apart from being an ardent gamer Spielberg has had a long history of involvement in video games. He has been giving thanks to his games of his division DreamWorks Interactive most notable as Someone's in the Kitchen with script written by Anamaniacs' Paul Rugg, Goosebumps: Escape from HorrorLand, The Neverhood (all in 1996), Skullmonkeys, Dilbert's Desktop Games, Goosebumps: Attack of the Mutant (all 1997), Boombots (1999), T'ai Fu: Wrath of the Tiger (1999), and Clive Barker's Undying (2001). In 2005 the director signed with Electronic Arts to collaborate on three games including an action game and an award winning puzzle game for the Wii called Boom Blox (and its 2009 sequel: Boom Blox Bash Party). Previously, he was involved in creating the scenario for the adventure game The Dig. In 1996, Spielberg worked on and shot original footage for a movie-making simulation game called Steven Spielberg's Director's Chair. He is the creator of the Medal of Honor series by Electronic Arts. He is credited in the special thanks section of the 1998 video game Trespasser. In 2013, Spielberg has announced he is collaborating with 343 Industries for a live-action TV show of Halo.
Upcoming and announced projects
Spielberg was scheduled to shoot a $200 million adaptation of Daniel H. Wilson's novel Robopocalypse, adapted for the screen by Drew Goddard. The film would follow a global human war against a robot uprising about 15–20 years in the future. Like Lincoln, it was to be released by Disney in the United States and Fox overseas. It was set for release on April 25, 2014, but Spielberg postponed production indefinitely in January 2013, just before it had been set to begin.
In 2009, Spielberg reportedly tried to obtain the screen rights to make a film based on Microsoft's Halo series. In September 2008, Steven Spielberg bought film rights for John Wyndham's novel Chocky and is interested in directing it. He is also interested in making an adaptation of A Steady Rain, Pirate Latitudes, The 39 Clues, and Under the Dome, along with a remake of When Worlds Collide.
In May 2009, Steven Spielberg bought the rights to the life story of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Spielberg will be involved not only as producer but also as a director. However, the purchase was made from the King estate, led by son Dexter, while the two other surviving children, the Reverend Bernice and Martin III, immediately threatened to sue, not having given their approvals to the project.
In June 2006, Steven Spielberg announced he would direct a scientifically accurate film about "a group of explorers who travel through a worm hole and into another dimension", from a treatment by Kip Thorne and producer Lynda Obst. In January 2007, screenwriter Jonathan Nolan met with them to discuss adapting Obst and Thorne's treatment into a narrative screenplay. The screenwriter suggested the addition of a "time element" to the treatment's basic idea, which was welcomed by Obst and Thorne. In March of that year, Paramount hired Nolan as well as scientists from Caltech, forming a workshop who will begin adapting the treatment after completing the script for Warner Bros.' The Chicago Fire. The following July, Kip Thorne said there was a push by people for him to portray himself in the film Interstellar. Spielberg later abandoned the project, which is currently being directed by Christopher Nolan.
It was announced on May 2, 2013, that Spielberg would direct the movie about the story of U.S. sniper Chris Kyle titled, American Sniper. However, on August 5, 2013, it was announced that Spielberg had decided not to direct the film.
Spielberg's films often deal with several recurring themes. Most of his films deal with ordinary characters searching for or coming in contact with extraordinary beings or finding themselves in extraordinary circumstances. In an AFI interview in August 2000 Spielberg commented on his interest in the possibility of extra terrestrial life and how it has influenced some of his films. Spielberg described himself as feeling like an alien during childhood, and his interest came from his father, a science fiction fan, and his opinion that aliens would not travel light years for conquest, but instead curiosity and sharing of knowledge.
A strong consistent theme in his family-friendly work is a childlike, even naïve, sense of wonder and faith, as attested by works such as Close Encounters of the Third Kind, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Hook, and A.I. Artificial Intelligence. According to Warren Buckland, these themes are portrayed through the use of low height camera tracking shots, which have become one of Spielberg's directing trademarks. In the cases when his films include children (E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Empire of the Sun, Jurassic Park, etc.), this type of shot is more apparent, but it is also used in films like Munich, Saving Private Ryan, The Terminal, Minority Report, and Amistad. If one views each of his films, one will see this shot utilized by the director, notably the water scenes in Jaws are filmed from the low-angle perspective of someone swimming. Another child oriented theme in Spielberg's films is that of loss of innocence and coming-of-age. In Empire of the Sun, Jim, a well-groomed and spoiled English youth, loses his innocence as he suffers through World War II China. Similarly, in Catch Me If You Can, Frank naively and foolishly believes that he can reclaim his shattered family if he accumulates enough money to support them.
The most persistent theme throughout his films is tension in parent-child relationships. Parents (often fathers) are reluctant, absent or ignorant. Peter Banning in Hook starts off in the beginning of the film as a reluctant married-to-his-work parent who through the course of his film regains the respect of his children. The notable absence of Elliott's father in E.T., is the most famous example of this theme. In Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, it is revealed that Indy has always had a very strained relationship with his father, who is a professor of medieval literature, as his father always seemed more interested in his work, specifically in his studies of the Holy Grail, than in his own son, although his father does not seem to realize or understand the negative effect that his aloof nature had on Indy (he even believes he was a good father in the sense that he taught his son "self reliance," which is not how Indy saw it). Even Oskar Schindler, from Schindler's List, is reluctant to have a child with his wife. Munich depicts Avner as a man away from his wife and newborn daughter. There are of course exceptions; Brody in Jaws is a committed family man, while John Anderton in Minority Report is a shattered man after the disappearance of his son. This theme is arguably the most autobiographical aspect of Spielberg's films, since Spielberg himself was affected by his parents' divorce as a child and by the absence of his father. Furthermore to this theme, protagonists in his films often come from families with divorced parents, most notably E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (protagonist Elliot's mother is divorced) and Catch Me If You Can (Frank Abagnale's mother and father split early on in the film). Little known also is Tim in Jurassic Park (early in the film, another secondary character mentions Tim and Lex's parents' divorce). The family often shown divided is often resolved in the ending as well. Following this theme of reluctant fathers and father figures, Tim looks to Dr. Alan Grant as a father figure. Initially, Dr. Grant is reluctant to return those paternal feelings to Tim. However, by the end of the film, he has changed, and the kids even fall asleep with their heads on his shoulders.
Most of his films are generally optimistic in nature. Critics frequently accuse his films of being overly sentimental, though Spielberg feels it is fine as long as it is disguised. The influence comes from directors Frank Capra and John Ford.
In terms of casting and production itself, Spielberg has a known penchant for working with actors and production members from his previous films. For instance, he has cast Richard Dreyfuss in several films: Jaws, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, and Always. Aside from his role as Indiana Jones, Spielberg also cast Harrison Ford as a headteacher in E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (though the scene was ultimately cut). Although Spielberg directed him only once (in Raiders of the Lost Ark, for which he voiced many of the animals), veteran voice actor Frank Welker has lent his voice in a number of productions Spielberg has executively produced from Gremlins to its sequel Gremlins 2: The New Batch, as well as The Land Before Time (and lending his voice to its sequels which Spielberg had no involvement in), Who Framed Roger Rabbit, and television shows such as Tiny Toons, Animaniacs, and SeaQuest DSV. Recently Spielberg has used Tom Hanks on several occasions and has cast him in Saving Private Ryan, Catch Me If You Can, and The Terminal. Spielberg also has collaborated with Tom Cruise twice on Minority Report and War of the Worlds. Spielberg has also cast Shia LaBeouf in five films: Transformers, Eagle Eye, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen, and Transformers: Dark of the Moon. Spielberg prefers working with production members with whom he has developed an existing working relationship. An example of this is his production relationship with Kathleen Kennedy who has served as producer on all his major films from E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial to the recent Munich. Other working relationships include Allen Daviau, a childhood friend and cinematographer who shot the early Spielberg film Amblin and most of his films up to Empire of the Sun; Janusz Kamiński who has shot every Spielberg film since Schindler's List (see List of film director and cinematographer collaborations); and the film editor Michael Kahn who has edited every film directed by Spielberg from Close Encounters to Munich (except E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial). Most of the DVDs of Spielberg's films have documentaries by Laurent Bouzereau.
A famous example of Spielberg working with the same professionals is his long-time collaboration with John Williams and the use of his musical scores in all of his films since The Sugarland Express (except The Color Purple and Twilight Zone: The Movie). One of Spielberg's trademarks is his use of music by John Williams to add to the visual impact of his scenes and to try and create a lasting picture and sound of the film in the memories of the film audience. These visual scenes often uses images of the sun (e.g. Empire of the Sun, Saving Private Ryan, the final scene of Jurassic Park, and the end credits of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (where they ride into the sunset), of which the last two feature a Williams score at that end scene. Spielberg is a contemporary of filmmakers George Lucas, Francis Ford Coppola, Martin Scorsese, John Milius, and Brian De Palma, collectively known as the "Movie Brats". Aside from his principal role as a director, Spielberg has acted as a producer for a considerable number of films, including early hits for Joe Dante and Robert Zemeckis.
Marriages and children
From 1985 to 1989 Spielberg was married to actress Amy Irving. In their 1989 divorce settlement, she received $100 million from Spielberg after a judge controversially vacated a prenuptial agreement written on a napkin. Their divorce was recorded as the third most costly celebrity divorce in history. Following the divorce, Spielberg and Irving shared custody of their son, Max Samuel.
Spielberg subsequently developed a relationship with actress Kate Capshaw, whom he met when he cast her in Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. They married on October 12, 1991. Capshaw is a convert to Judaism. They currently move among their four homes in Pacific Palisades, California; New York City; Quelle Farm, Georgica Pond in East Hampton, New York, on Long Island; and Naples, Florida.
There are seven children in the Spielberg-Capshaw family:
- Jessica Capshaw (born August 9, 1976) – daughter from Kate Capshaw's previous marriage to Robert Capshaw
- Max Samuel Spielberg (born June 13, 1985) – son from Spielberg's previous marriage to actress Amy Irving
- Theo Spielberg (born August 21, 1988) – son adopted by Capshaw before her marriage to Spielberg, who later also adopted him
- Sasha Rebecca Spielberg (born May 14, 1990, Los Angeles)
- Sawyer Avery Spielberg (born March 10, 1992, Los Angeles)
- Mikaela George (born February 28, 1996) – adopted with Kate Capshaw
- Destry Allyn Spielberg (born December 1, 1996)
In 2002, Spielberg was one of eight flagbearers who carried the Olympic Flag into Rice-Eccles Stadium at the Opening Ceremonies of the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City. In 2006, Premiere listed him as the most powerful and influential figure in the motion picture industry. Time listed him as one of the 100 Most Important People of the Century. At the end of the 20th century, Life named him the most influential person of his generation. In 2009, Boston University presented him an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree.
According to Forbes' Most Influential Celebrities 2014 list, Spielberg was listed as the most influential celebrity in America. The annual list is conducted by E-Poll Market Research and it gave more than 6,600 celebrities on 46 different personality attributes a score representing "how that person is perceived as influencing the public, their peers, or both." Spielberg received a score of 47, meaning 47% of the US believes he is influential. Gerry Philpott, president of E-Poll Market Research, supported Spielberg's score by stating, "If anyone doubts that Steven Spielberg has greatly influenced the public, think about how many will think for a second before going into the water this summer."
In 1991, Steven Spielberg co-founded Starbright with Randy Aduana—a foundation dedicated to improving sick children's lives through technology-based programs focusing on entertainment and education. In 2002 Starbright merged with the Starlight Foundation forming what is now today the Starlight Children's Foundation.
- Spielberg usually supports U.S. Democratic Party candidates. He has donated over $800,000 to the Democratic party and its nominees. He has been a close friend of former President Bill Clinton and worked with the President for the USA Millennium celebrations. He directed an 18-minute film for the project, scored by John Williams and entitled The American Journey. It was shown at America's Millennium Gala on December 31, 1999, in the National Mall at the Reflecting Pool at the base of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
- Spielberg resigned as a member of the national advisory board of the Boy Scouts of America in 2001 because of his disapproval of the organization's anti-homosexuality stance.
- Spielberg joined Jeffrey Katzenberg and Haim Saban in endorsing the re-election of Hollywood friend Arnold Schwarzenegger, the Republican Governor of California, on August 7, 2006.
- In 2007 the Arab League voted to boycott Spielberg's movies after he donated $1 million for relief efforts in Israel during the 2006 Lebanon War.
- On February 20, 2007, Spielberg, Katzenberg, and David Geffen invited Democrats to a fundraiser for Barack Obama. However, on June 14, 2007, Spielberg endorsed Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-NY) for President. While Geffen and Katzenberg supported Obama, Spielberg was always a supporter of Hillary Clinton. However Spielberg directed a video for Obama at the DNC in August 2008 and attended Obama's inauguration.
- In February 2008, Spielberg pulled out of his role as advisor to the 2008 Summer Olympics in response to the Chinese government's inaction over the War in Darfur. Spielberg said in a statement that "I find that my conscience will not allow me to continue business as usual." It also said that "Sudan's government bears the bulk of the responsibility for these on-going crimes, but the international community, and particularly China, should be doing more.." The International Olympic Committee respected Spielberg's decision, but IOC president Jacques Rogge admitted in an interview that "[Spielberg] certainly would have brought a lot to the opening ceremony in terms of creativity." Spielberg's statement drew criticism from Chinese officials and state-run media calling his criticism "unfair".
- In September 2008, Spielberg and his wife offered their support to same-sex marriage, by issuing a statement following their donation of $100,000 to the "No on Proposition 8" campaign fund, a figure equal to the amount of money Brad Pitt donated to the same campaign less than a week prior.
In June 1982 Steven Spielberg spent $60,500 to buy a Rosebud sled from the 1941 film Citizen Kane — one of three balsa sleds used in the closing scenes and the only one that was not burned. Spielberg had paid homage to the Orson Welles classic in the final shot of the government warehouse in his 1981 film, Raiders of the Lost Ark. "When you look at Rosebud, you don't think of fast dollars, fast sequels and remakes," Spielberg said. "This to me says that movies of my generation had better be good." In 1994 Spielberg also purchased an original script for Welles's 1938 radio broadcast The War of the Worlds — Welles's own directorial copy and one of only two radioscripts known to survive. Spielberg adapted The War of the Worlds for a feature film in 2005.
Spielberg is a major collector of the American illustrator and painter Norman Rockwell. A collection of 57 Rockwell paintings and drawings owned by Spielberg and fellow Rockwell collector and film director George Lucas were displayed at the Smithsonian American Art Museum from July 2, 2010 to January 2, 2011 in an exhibition titled Telling Stories.
Spielberg is an avid film buff, and, when not shooting a picture, he will indulge in "movie orgies" (watching many over a single weekend). He sees almost every major summer blockbuster in theaters if not preoccupied and enjoys most of them; "If I get pleasure from anything, I can't think of it as dumb or myself as shallow [...] I'll probably go late to that movie and go, 'What the dickens was everybody complaining about, that wasn't so bad!'".
Since playing Pong while filming Jaws in 1974, Spielberg has been an avid video gamer. He owns a Wii, a PlayStation 3, a PSP, and Xbox 360, and enjoys playing first-person shooters such as the Medal of Honor series and Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare. He has also criticized the use of cut scenes in games, calling them intrusive, and feels making story flow naturally into the gameplay is a challenge for future game developers.
In 2001, Spielberg was stalked by conspiracy theorist and former social worker Diana Napolis. She accused him, along with actress Jennifer Love Hewitt, of controlling her thoughts through "cybertronic" technology and being part of a satanic conspiracy against her. Napolis was committed for life in a mental institution before pleading guilty to stalking and released on probation with a condition that she have no contact with either Spielberg or Hewitt.
Jonathan Norman was arrested after making two attempts to enter Spielberg's Pacific Palisades home in June and July 1997. Norman was jailed for 25 years in California. Spielberg told the court: "Had Jonathan Norman actually confronted me, I genuinely, in my heart of hearts, believe that I would have been raped or maimed or killed."
Spielberg has won three Academy Awards. He has been nominated for seven Academy Awards for the category of Best Director, winning two of them (Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan), and nine of the films he directed were up for the Best Picture Oscar (Schindler's List won). In 1987 he was awarded the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award for his work as a creative producer.
Drawing from his own experiences in Scouting, Spielberg helped the Boy Scouts of America develop a merit badge in cinematography. The badge was launched at the 1989 National Scout Jamboree, which Spielberg attended, and where he personally counseled many boys in their work on requirements.
That same year, 1989, saw the release of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. The opening scene shows a teenage Indiana Jones in scout uniform bearing the rank of a Life Scout. Spielberg stated he made Indiana Jones a Boy Scout in honor of his experience in Scouting. For his career accomplishments and service to others, Spielberg was awarded the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award.
Steven Spielberg received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1995.
In 1998 he was awarded the Federal Cross of Merit with Ribbon of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Award was presented to him by President Roman Herzog in recognition of his film Schindler's List and his Shoa-Foundation.
In 1999, Spielberg received an honorary degree from Brown University. Spielberg was also awarded the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service by Secretary of Defense William Cohen at the Pentagon on August 11, 1999; Cohen presented the award in recognition of Spielberg's film Saving Private Ryan.
In 2004 he was admitted as knight of the Légion d'honneur by president Jacques Chirac. On July 15, 2006, Spielberg was also awarded the Gold Hugo Lifetime Achievement Award at the Summer Gala of the Chicago International Film Festival, and also was awarded a Kennedy Center honour on December 3. The tribute to Spielberg featured a short, filmed biography narrated by Tom Hanks and included thank-yous from World War II veterans for Saving Private Ryan, as well as a performance of the finale to Leonard Bernstein's Candide, conducted by John Williams (Spielberg's frequent composer).
The Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted Spielberg in 2005, the first year it considered non-literary contributors. In November 2007, he was chosen for a Lifetime Achievement Award to be presented at the sixth annual Visual Effects Society Awards in February 2009. He was set to be honored with the Cecil B. DeMille Award at the January 2008 Golden Globes; however, the new, watered-down format of the ceremony resulting from conflicts in the 2007–08 writers strike, the HFPA postponed his honor to the 2009 ceremony. In 2008, Spielberg was awarded the Légion d'honneur.
Spielberg received an honorary degree at Boston University's 136th Annual Commencement on May 17, 2009. In October 2009 Steven Spielberg received the Philadelphia Liberty Medal; presenting him with the medal was former US president and Liberty Medal recipient Bill Clinton. Special guests included Whoopi Goldberg, Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell and Philadelphia Mayor Michael Nutter.
On October 22, 2011 he was admitted as a Commander of the Belgian Order of the Crown. He was given the badge on a red neck ribbon by the Belgian Federal Minister of Finance Didier Reynders. The Commander is the third highest rank of the Order of the Crown. He was the president of the jury for the 2013 Cannes Film Festival.
On November 19, 2013, Spielberg was honored by the National Archives and Records Administration with its Records of Achievement Award. Spielberg was given two facsimiles of the 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, one passed but not ratified in 1861, as well as a facsimile of the actual 1865 amendment signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln. The amendment and the process of passing it were the subject of his film Lincoln.
Praise and criticism
In 2005, Steven Spielberg was rated the greatest film director of all time by Empire magazine. In 1997 a Wall Street sell-side analyst said, "There are only two brand names in the business: Disney and Spielberg".
After watching the unconventional, off-center camera techniques of Jaws, Alfred Hitchcock praised "young Spielberg," saying "He's the first one of us who doesn't see the proscenium arch." Or, to paraphrase, he was the first mainstream director to think outside the visual dynamics of the theater, although that didn't stop Hitchcock from removing Spielberg from the set of Family Plot, his last film.
Some of Spielberg's most famous admirers include Robert Aldrich, Ingmar Bergman, Werner Herzog, Stanley Kubrick, David Lean, Sidney Lumet, Roman Polanski, Martin Scorsese, François Truffaut, David Lynch and Zhang Yimou.
Spielberg's movies have also influenced many directors that followed, including Adam Green, J. J. Abrams, Paul Thomas Anderson, Neill Blomkamp, James Cameron, Guillermo del Toro, Roland Emmerich, David Fincher, Peter Jackson, Kal Ng, Robert Rodriguez, John Sayles, Ridley Scott, John Singleton, Kevin Smith, Steven Soderbergh and Quentin Tarantino.
British film critic Tom Shone has said of Spielberg, "If you have to point to any one director of the last twenty-five years in whose work the medium of film was most fully itself – where we found out what it does best when left to its own devices, it has to be that guy." Jess Cagle, the managing editor of Entertainment Weekly, called Spielberg "...arguably (well, who would argue?) the greatest filmmaker in history."
Spielberg's critics complain that his films are overly sentimental and tritely moralistic. In his book Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex 'n' Drugs 'n' Rock 'n' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood, Peter Biskind summarized the views of Spielberg's detractors, accusing the director of "infantilizing the audience, reconstituting the spectator as child, then overwhelming him and her with sound and spectacle, obliterating irony, aesthetic self-consciousness, and critical reflection."
Critics of mainstream film such as Ray Carney and American artist and actor Crispin Glover (who starred in the Spielberg-produced Back to the Future and also sued Spielberg for using his likeness in Back to the Future Part II) claim that Spielberg's films lack depth and do not take risks.
French New Wave filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard stated that he holds Spielberg partly responsible for the lack of artistic merit in mainstream cinema and accused Spielberg of using his film Schindler's List to make a profit off tragedy while Schindler's wife, Emilie Schindler, lived in poverty in Argentina. In defense of Spielberg, critic Roger Ebert said "Has Godard or any other director living or dead done more than Spielberg, with his Holocaust Project, to honor and preserve the memories of the survivors?" Author Thomas Keneally has also disputed claims that Emilie Schindler was never paid for her contributions to the film, "not least because I had recently sent Emilie a check myself."
The film critic, Pauline Kael, who had championed Spielberg's films in the 1970s, expressed disappointment in his later development, stating that "he's become, I think, a very bad director.... And I'm a little ashamed for him, because I loved his early work.... [H]e turned to virtuous movies. And he's become so uninteresting now.... I think that he had it in him to become more of a fluid, far-out director. But, instead, he's become a melodramatist."
Imre Kertész, Hungarian Jewish author, Nazi concentration camp survivor, and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, criticized Spielberg's depiction of the Holocaust in Schindler's List as kitsch, saying "I regard as kitsch any representation of the Holocaust that is incapable of understanding or unwilling to understand the organic connection between our own deformed mode of life and the very possibility of the Holocaust." Veteran documentary filmmaker and professor Claude Lanzmann also labeled Schindler's List "pernicious in its impact and influence" and "very sentimental".
Stephen Rowley wrote an extensive essay about Spielberg and his career in Senses of Cinema. In it he discussed Spielberg's strengths as a film maker, saying "there is a welcome complexity of tone and approach in these later films that defies the lazy stereotypes often bandied about his films" and that "Spielberg continues to take risks, with his body of work continuing to grow more impressive and ambitious", concluding that he has only received "limited, begrudging recognition" from critics.
In 1999, Spielberg, then a co-owner of DreamWorks, was involved in a heated debate in which the studio proposed building on wetlands near Los Angeles, California, though development was later dropped for economic reasons.
In August 2007, Ai Weiwei, artistic designer for the Beijing Olympic Stadium, known as the "Bird's Nest", accused those choreographing the Olympic opening ceremony, including Spielberg, of failing to live up to their responsibility as artists. Ai said, "It's disgusting. I don't like anyone who shamelessly abuses their profession, who makes no moral judgment."
Awards and nominations
- ↑ American Film Institute. "AFI Life Achievement Award". Afi.com. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Forbes Billionaire List Forbes.com. Retrieved September 2012.
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg Biography". Biography.com. December 18, 1947. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ McBride, Joseph (1997). Steven Spielberg. Faber and Faber. p. 37. ISBN 0-571-19177-0.
- ↑ The cinema of Steven Spielberg: Empire of light. Nigel Morris. Wallflower Press. 2007
- ↑ Steven Spielberg: A Biography. Da Capo Press. 1999. ISBN 978-0-306-80900-2.
- ↑ "Fred A. Bernstein". Fredbernstein.com. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 "Steven Spielberg Biography (1947?–)". filmreference.com. Retrieved January 15, 2008.
- ↑ Lavinia, DeCastro. "Haddon Township: Part of a larger whole", Courier-Post, October 19, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2011. "Did you know film director Steven Spielberg lived in Haddon Township as a youngster? Spielberg lived in the township from 1950 to 1953 and he is believed to have seen one of his first movies at the Westmont Theater."
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg Sighted in Arizona". Retrieved November 19, 2007.
- ↑ "Nickelodeon Magazine Interviews Steven Spielberg". Nickelodeon Magazine. Retrieved July 29, 2008.
- ↑ From Inside the Actor's Studio with James Lipton interviewing Steven Spielberg.
- ↑ Steven Spielberg: A Biography. Da Capo Press. 1999. ISBN 978-0-306-80900-2.
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg: 'We Can't Just Sit Back and Hope'". Parade Magazine. March 27, 1994.
- ↑ Weinraub, Bernard (December 12, 1993). "Steven Spielberg Faces the Holocaust". The New York Times.
- ↑ Board of Trustees, University of Southern California
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 "CSU Newsline – Steven Spielberg To Graduate from California State University, Long Beach With Bachelor's Degree in Film and Electronic Arts". Calstate.edu. May 14, 2002. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- ↑ Nadia Mendoza, "'Movies helped... they saved me from shame': Steven Spielberg opens up about dyslexia battle", Daily Mail, September 26, 2012.
- ↑ Steven Spielberg by Joseph McBride, p. 223
- ↑ Steven Spielberg by Joseph McBride, p. 248
- ↑ Steven Spielberg by Joseph McBride, p. 250
- ↑ Baxter, John (1997). Steven Spielberg: The Unauthorised Biography. London: Harper Collins. p. 145. ISBN 0-00-638444-7.
- ↑ "Blade Runner".
- ↑ Heitmueller, Karl (April 3, 2007). "Rewind: Major-Studio flicks that belong in the Grind House". MTV. Retrieved January 2, 2009. "Ultimate A-lister Steven Spielberg co-produced this big-budget adaptation of Rod Serling's classic '60s TV show...."
- ↑ Corliss, Richard (January 7, 1985). "This way to the children's crusade". Time. Retrieved January 2, 2009. "he wrote the story and served as an executive producer of The Goonies...."
- ↑ "Andrew Sarris' Top 10 lists 1958–2005". Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- ↑ The screenplay, adapted from Thomas Keneally's novel, was originally in the hands of fellow director Martin Scorsese, but Spielberg negotiated with Scorsese to trade scripts. (At the time, Spielberg held the script for a remake of Cape Fear.)
- ↑ Army Archered (June 17, 1993). "Spielberg to take break after completing 'List'". Variety. Retrieved February 11, 2007.
- ↑ (formed with former Disney animation exec Jeffrey Katzenberg and media mogul David Geffen, providing the other letters in the company name)
- ↑ Rotten Tomatoes. "Minority Report". Retrieved March 11, 2007.
- ↑ Ebert, Roger (June 21, 2002). "Minority Report". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- ↑ "Box office collection of Catch Me If You Can". Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- ↑ "Reviews of Catch Me If You Can". Retrieved November 19, 2012.
- ↑ Yossi Melman and Steven Hartov (January 17, 2006). Munich: Fact and Fantasy. The Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- ↑ "New Indy Adventure Begins Shooting". IndianaJones.com. June 18, 2007. Archived from the original on June 21, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
- ↑ "Spielberg, Ford and Lucas on Indy IV". Empire. August 21, 2006. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- ↑ "Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)". Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- ↑ "The Man Behind Boy, Dog and Their Adventures" Book review by Charles McGrath, The New York Times, December 22, 2009 (Dec 23, 2009, p. C1 NY ed.). Book reviewed: Hergé: The Man Who Created Tintin, by Pierre Assouline; translated by Charles Ruas, 276 pages. Oxford University Press. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- ↑ "Tintin Has World Premiere In His Hometown". NPR. Associated Press. October 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-22.
- ↑ "The Adventures of Tintin Official Movie Site". Paramount Pictures. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
- ↑ "The Adventures of Tintin (Rotten Tomatoes)". Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- ↑ "The Adventures of Tintin (Box office)". Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- ↑ "2012 GOLDEN GLOBES Nominees and Winners – Complete List!". Retrieved April 15, 2012.
- ↑ "Tintin Takes Golden Globe". Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- ↑ "The Adventures of Tintin (Trivia)". Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- ↑ Wigler, Josh (October 26, 2011). "Jackson To Direct 'Tintin' Sequel". MTV. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg starts filming War Horse on Dartmoor" by Tristan Nichols, The Herald August 3, 2010
- ↑ "War Horse (Rotten Tomatoes)". Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- ↑ "Nominees and Winners for the 84th Academy Awards". oscars.org. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
- ↑ Breznican, Anthony (April 13, 2011). "Steven Spielberg's 'Lincoln' gets its Mary Todd: Sally Field". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
- ↑ Garbarek, Ben (May 9, 2011). "First casting calls for Steven Spielberg movie". WWBT (Richmond). Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- ↑ Spielberg to film Lincoln scenes in Richmond
- ↑ Fischer, Russ (November 19, 2010). "Daniel Day-Lewis to Star in Steven Spielberg’s 'Lincoln'". /Film.
- ↑ Finke, Nikki. "Spielberg's 'Lincoln' To Be Twentieth Fox Co-Financed & Distributed Internationally". Deadline.
- ↑ "Lincoln". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- ↑ "Nominees for the 85th Academy Awards". oscars.org. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- ↑ "If Only It Were True by Marc Levy – Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists". Goodreads.com. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- ↑ Jeff Jensen (July 19, 2002). "Killer Instinct". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
- ↑ "NEW 'Super 8' Teaser Details, Spielberg/Abrams Collaboration Confirmed!". Bloody-disgusting.com. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ Schneider, Michael (December 11, 2006). "Spielberg takes development role in Fox TV projects". Variety. Retrieved December 11, 2006.
- ↑ James Hibberd (March 11, 2011). "Fox pushes back 'Terra Nova' to fall". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- ↑ "ABC's 'The River' offers scary mystery". USA Today. July 22, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- ↑ "'Smash': It has Steven Spielberg, Katharine McPhee, Marilyn Monroe". Retrieved May 15, 2011.
- ↑ Waters, Darren (February 23, 2008). "Making games with Steven Spielberg". BBC News. Retrieved January 6, 2010.
- ↑ "Spielberg's Boom Blox Revealed". Kotaku.com. February 6, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "The Dig: in the deep of space, a curse is alive...". Adventure Classic Gaming. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "Medal of Honor: Allied Assault (2002) Windows credits". MobyGames. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "Trespasser – Credits". allgame. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- ↑ Watercutter, Angela (2013-03-28). "Steven Spielberg Working on Live-Action Halo Series for Xbox | Underwire". Wired.com. Retrieved 2013-06-18.
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg Commits To Next Direct 'Robopocalypse'". Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg Says 'Robopocalypse' Will Be Set 15–20 Years in the Future, Center On Man Vs. Machine War | The Playlist". Blogs.indiewire.com. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- ↑ "DreamWorks, Fox To Co-Finance Steven Spielberg's 'Robopocalypse'". Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- ↑ "'X-Men: First Class' & 'Rise Of The Planet Of The Apes' Sequels Set For Summer 2014; 'Independence Day 3D' Hits July 3, 2013". Retrieved May 31, 2012.
- ↑ Steven Spielberg's 'Robopocalypse' Postponed Indefinitely (Exclusive)
- ↑ "The New Halo Game Is a Hit – So What's the Status of the Halo Movie?".
- ↑ "SDCC: Spielberg Interested in A Steady Rain Movie". ComingSoon. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- ↑ Spielberg to make pirates movie – Yahoo! Movies UK & Ireland http://uk.movies.yahoo.com/27082009/5/spielberg-pirates-movie-0.html
- ↑ Michael Fleming (June 24, 2008). "Steven Spielberg follows '39 Clues'". Variety. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
- ↑ Littleton, Cynthia (November 19, 2009). "Spielberg, King team on 'Dome'". Variety.
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg to direct Martin Luther King film" Daily Telegraph, 19 May 2009. Footnote format December 24, 2009.
- ↑ -sue-over-planned-biographical-film/ "King's Children May Sue Over Planned Biographical Film" by Dave Itzkoff, The New York Times ArtsBeat blog, May 20, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- ↑ Michael Fleming (June 14, 2006). "Space chase pic on Par launch pad". Variety. Retrieved October 29, 2006.
- ↑ 84.0 84.1 Jay A. Fernandez (March 28, 2007). "Jonah Nolan turns science into a film script". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- ↑ Michael Fleming (March 22, 2007). "Nolan to write Spielberg film". Variety. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
- ↑ Leigh Dayton (July 14, 2007). "Warped in La La Land". The Australian. Retrieved July 20, 2007.
- ↑ Child, Ben (10 January 2013). "Christopher Nolan's next film mission to go Interstellar". The Guardian.
- ↑ Steven Spielberg developing Stanley Kubrick, sur Hollywood Reporter
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg, Bradley Cooper to team for 'American Sniper'". LA Times. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- ↑ Kroll, Justin (August 5, 2013). "Steven Spielberg, DreamWorks Part Ways With ‘American Sniper’". Variety.
- ↑ McBride, Joseph (1997). Steven Spielberg. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19177-0.
- ↑ E.T. DVD Production Notes Booklet. Universal. 2002.
- ↑ Directed by Steven Spielberg: Poetics of the Contemporary Hollywood Blockbuster
- ↑ The Culture Show (TV). BBC. November 4, 2006.
- ↑ "'Most costly' celebrity divorces". BBC News. April 13, 2007.
- ↑ Pogrebin, Abigail (October 2005). Stars of David: Prominent Jews Talk About Being Jewish. Bantam Dell Pub Group. ISBN 0-7679-1612-3.
- ↑ "Billionaires on vacation: No. 80: Steven Spielberg" by Christina Valhouli, Forbes magazine, Sep 19, 2002. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- ↑ "Spielberg, Steven – Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information". Funtrivia.com. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- ↑ "California Birth Index". Familytreelegends.com. May 14, 1990. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "California Birth Index". Familytreelegends.com. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "#125 Steven Spielberg – The Forbes 400 Richest Americans 2012". Forbes. September 30, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- ↑ "The 50 most influential baby boomers: Top 10". Life. Archived from the original on December 23, 2005. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- ↑ "Honoring Steven Spielberg: Talking about old-school filmmaking, the virtues of TV, and the scent of film". BU Today. 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2013-08-02.
- ↑ Selby, Jenn (16 January 2014). "Steven Spielberg tops Forbes Most Influential Celebrities of 2014 list". The Independent. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- ↑ "Forbes' Most Influential Celebrities 2014 List Led By Steven Spielberg, Naturally". The Huffington Post. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- ↑ Pomerantz, Dorothy (15 January 2014). "Steven Spielberg Tops Our List Of The Most Influential Celebrities". Forbes. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- ↑ "The Clintons' Showbiz Celebration". BBC News. January 1, 2000. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- ↑ "Spielberg quits scouts 'over gay ban'". BBC News. April 17, 2001. Retrieved October 30, 2006.
- ↑ "Spielberg resigns from Boy Scouts board". Hollywood.com. Retrieved March 10, 2006.
- ↑ "Spielberg movies banned by Arab League, WikiLeaks cable reveals." Haaretz, December 18, 2010.
- ↑ "Spielberg donates $US1m to Israeli relief". The Age (Melbourne). Associated Press. August 10, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2010.
- ↑ Obama excites entertainment community By JOCELYN NOVECK, AP National Writer
- ↑ Rachel Abramowitz (2008). "Spielberg drops out as Beijing Olympics advisor". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 13, 2007.
- ↑ "Spielberg in Darfur snub to China". BBC News. February 13, 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2008.
- ↑ "Rogge respect for Spielberg move". BBC News. February 15, 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2008.
- ↑ Bristow, Michael (February 20, 2008). "China hits back over Olympics row". BBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2008.
- ↑ "Spielberg Makes Like Pitt, Supports Same-Sex Marriage – E! Online". Uk.eonline.com. September 23, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- ↑ "Hidden Treasures: Prop Art"; The New York Times, June 13, 1982
- ↑ "Newsmakers"; Newsweek, June 21, 1982, page 51
- ↑ Sale 7565 / Lot 149, Orson Welles. Typescript radioplay The War of the Worlds. Christie's, June 2, 1994
- ↑ Millar, John, "Cruising for a Summer Hit; The Aliens Have Landed"; Sunday Mail (Scotland), June 26, 2005
- ↑ Smithsonian American Art Museum. "Exhibitions: Telling Stories". Washington, D.C.
- ↑ Face to Face. BBC Two. January 31, 1994.
- ↑ Ian Freer (August 2005). "Death from Above". Empire. p. 99.
- ↑ Tom Chick (December 8, 2008). "A Close Encounter with Steven Spielberg". Yahoo!. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- ↑ "Spielberg wins order banning cult stalker". The Australian. October 23, 2002. p. 12.
- ↑ MacKenzie, D (October 20, 2002). "Spielberg Stalker in Mind-Bug Game". Sunday Mirror. p. 16.
- ↑ Sauer, M (December 31, 2002). "Stalking suspect to undergo more psychological tests". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- ↑ De Young, Mary (2004). The day care ritual abuse moral panic. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland. pp. 234–5. ISBN 0-7864-1830-3.
- ↑ Haskell, Dave (July 26, 2002). "Jury convicts white supremacists". United Press International. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
- ↑ "Spielberg stalker jailed". BBC News. June 17, 1998. Retrieved December 11, 2011.
- ↑ Sylvester, Sherri (February 26, 1998). "Spielberg recounts fears, anguish over alleged stalker". CNN. Retrieved December 11, 2011.
- ↑ "Distinguished Eagle Scout Award". National Capital Area Council — Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg erhält das Bundesverdienstkreuz". Berlin Online. September 11, 1998. Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- ↑ "Spielberg receives Royal honour". BBC News. January 30, 2001.
- ↑ American usage of title Sir
- ↑ Article One of the United States Constitution clause 9
- ↑ "Le Président de la République remet les insignes de chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur à M. Steven Spielberg" (in French). Palais de l'Élysée. September 5, 2004. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- ↑ "Spielberg receives Lifetime Achievement Award". Chicago Film Festival. July 17, 2006. Retrieved October 21, 2006.
- ↑ "It's Official! Inductees Named for 2005 Hall of Fame Class". Press release March 24, 2005. Science Fiction Museum (sfhomeworld.org). Archived 2005-03-26. Retrieved 2013-03-22.
- ↑ "Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame". Mid American Science Fiction and Fantasy Conventions, Inc. Retrieved 2013-04-07. This was the official website of the hall of fame to 2004.
- ↑ "Spielberg to Receive Cecil B. DeMillle Award". ComingSoon.net. November 14, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
- ↑ "Spielberg Globe honour 'deferred'". BBC News. January 9, 2008.
- ↑ "French honour for Steven Spielberg". Press Association. May 21, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- ↑ Spielberg Receives Arizona State University Communication Award Newswise. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- ↑ "Steven Spielberg to head up Cannes Film Festival jury". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-02-28.
- ↑ Steven Spielberg Honored by National Archives
- ↑ "Film Site-AMC.com". Filmsite.org. April 19, 1996. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ Fabrikant, Geraldine (January 20, 1997). "Despite a Sluggish Beginning, Dreamworks Is Viewed as a Potential Hollywood Power". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- ↑ Reviewed by Owen Gleiberman (August 1, 2007). "''The Bourne Ultimatum'' Review By Owne Gleiberman". EW.com. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- ↑ McBride, Joseph (May 6, 1999). Steven Spielberg: A Biography. ISBN 978-0-306-80900-2.
- ↑ Aldrich, Robert; Arnold, Edwin T; Miller, Eugene L (2004). Robert Aldrich: interviews. ISBN 978-1-57806-602-5.
- ↑ "När Bergman går på bio". Archived from the original on May 12, 2002. Retrieved August 27, 2007.
- ↑ "INTERVIEW: Strong Man on a Mission; Werner Herzog Talks About 'Invincible'". indieWIRE. September 23, 2002. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "On Kubrick – A Talk With Kubrick Documentarian Jan Harlan". Dvdtalk.com. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ Organ, Steven (2009). David Lean Interviews. ISBN 978-1-60473-235-1.
- ↑ "The Hollywood Interview: Sidney Lumet". Thehollywoodinterview.blogspot.com. January 7, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ Polanski, Roman; Cronin, Paul (October 2005). Roman Polanski: Interviews. ISBN 978-1-57806-799-2.
- ↑ "Golden Globes 2009: Steven Spielberg Cecil B. DeMille Award". YouTube. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ Stephen Rowley. "Genre, Auteurism, and Spielberg". Home.mira.net. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "David Lynch interview New Musical Express, 21st August, 1982". Davidlynch.de. August 21, 1982. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- ↑ "Zhang Yimou, Spielberg to Join Hands for Olympic Ceremonies". Henan.china.cn. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ Five Favorite Films with J.J. Abrams. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- ↑ Useless Beauty: Ecclesiastes Through The Lens Of Contemporary Film – Robert K. Johnston. Google Books. 2004-11-01. ISBN 9780801027857. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- ↑ "District 9 (2009) – Neill Blomkamp Interview". Sci-Fi Movie Page. August 18, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "James Cameron Interview! Talks AVATAR Re-release, Sequels, 3D Conversions & Working With Del Toro!". Marketsaw.blogspot.com. August 7, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ http://www.deltorofilms.com/GDT_Favorites.php
- ↑ "Five Favorite Films with Roland Emmerich". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "Five Favorite Films With Peter Jackson". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "Interview with Kal Ng". Archive.sensesofcinema.com. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ "Five Favorite Films with Robert Rodriguez". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ Sayles, John; Carson, Diane (1999). John Sayles: interviews. ISBN 978-1-57806-138-9.
- ↑ Scott, Ridley; Knapp, Laurence F; Kulas, Andrea F (February 2005). Ridley Scott: interviews. ISBN 978-1-57806-726-8.
- ↑ Barboza, Craigh (January 2009). John Singleton: interviews. ISBN 978-1-60473-116-3.
- ↑ "Five Favorite Films with Kevin Smith". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ Tarantino, Quentin; Peary, Gerald (1998). Quentin Tarantino: interviews. ISBN 978-1-57806-051-1.
- ↑ Shone, Tom. Blockbuster: how Hollywood learned to stop worrying and love the summer. p. 80. Simon and Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0-7432-3568-1.
- ↑ "Spielberg and You" – Entertainment Weekly. Pg. 6. 12/9/11.
- ↑ Glenn Heath, Jr. (April 14, 2011). "A.I. Artificial Intelligence". Slant Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- ↑ Thorsen, Tor. "A.I.: Artificial Intelligence". Archived from the original on March 5, 2008.
- ↑ 181.0 181.1 Rowley, Stephen. "Steven Spielberg on Senses of Cinema". Archived from the original on March 5, 2008. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- ↑ Easy Riders, Raging Bulls: How the Sex 'n' Drugs 'n' Rock 'n' Roll Generation Saved Hollywood by Peter Biskind, Bloomsbury, London, 1999, pp. 343–344.
- ↑ Whitney Matheson (August 7, 2002). "The amazingly true tales of Crispin Glover". USA Today (Pop Candy). Retrieved March 8, 2011.
- ↑ Carney, Ray. "There's no Business like Show Business". Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- ↑ Glover, Crispin. "What Is It?". Archived from the original on May 3, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2007.
- ↑ Gibron, Bill (April 21, 2007). "Short Cuts — Forgotten Gems: In Praise of Love". Pop Matters. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- ↑ Roger Ebert (October 18, 2002). "In Praise Of Love". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
- ↑ Keneally, Thomas (2007). Searching for Schindler: A Memoir. ISBN 978-0-385-52617-3.
- ↑ Afterglow: A Last Conversation with Pauline Kael by Francis Davis, Da Capo Press, 2003, p. 50.
- ↑ "Holocaust Reflections". English.illinois.edu. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ↑ The New York Times, December 6, 2010 Maker of 'Shoah' Stresses Its Lasting Value
- ↑ "Entertainment Spielberg Studio Plan axed". BBC. July 22, 1999. Retrieved October 30, 2006.
- ↑ Watts, Jonathan (August 11, 2007). "Olympic artist lashes out over PRC propaganda". The Taipei Times. Retrieved July 6, 2008.
- Steven Spielberg; Lester D. Friedman; Brent Notbohm (2000). Steven Spielberg: interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-113-6.
- Laura Bufano Edge (2008). Steven Spielberg: Director of Blockbuster Films. Enslow Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7660-2888-3.
- Nigel Morris (2007). The cinema of Steven Spielberg: empire of light. Wallflower Press. ISBN 978-1-904764-88-5.
- Sue Vander Hook (2009). Steven Spielberg: Groundbreaking Director. ABDO. ISBN 978-1-60453-704-8.
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