|- City -|
Photo collage of Sochi
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
|Administrative status (as of May 2013)|
|Federal subject||Krasnodar Krai|
|Administratively subordinated to||City of Sochi|
|Administrative center of||City of Sochi|
|Municipal status (as of June 2009)|
|Urban okrug||Sochi Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Sochi Urban Okrug|
|Representative body||City Assembly|
|Area (city) (January 2008)||176.77 km2 (68.25 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||343,334 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||52nd|
|Density||1,942 /km2 (5,030 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Previous names||Dakhovsky (until 1896)|
|Postal code(s)||354000, 354002–354004, 354008–354010, 354013, 354014, 354018, 354019, 354022, 354024, 354025, 354030, 354031, 354033, 354036, 354037, 354039, 354053–354055, 354057, 354059, 354061, 354065–354068, 354071, 354073, 354084, 354099, 354200, 354202–354214, 354216–354218, 354220, 354226, 354231, 354233, 354299, 354340, 354346, 354348, 354349, 354354, 354355, 354364, 354380, 354382, 354383, 354399, 993501|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8622|
Sochi (Russian: Со́чи, IPA: [ˈsot͡ɕɪ]) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia. The Greater Sochi area, which includes territories and localities subordinated to Sochi proper, has a total area of 3,526 square kilometers (1,361 sq mi) and sprawls for 145 kilometers (90 mi) along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains. The area of the city proper is 176.77 square kilometers (68.25 sq mi). According to the 2010 Census, the city had a permanent population of 343,334, up from 328,809 recorded in the 2002 Census, making it Russia's largest resort city. It is one of the very few places in Russia with a subtropical climate, with warm to hot summers and mild winters.
With the alpine and Nordic events held at the nearby ski resort of Roza Khutor in Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi hosts the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in 2014, as well as the Russian Formula 1 Grand Prix from 2014 until at least 2020, subject to the circuit being ready in time. It will also be one of the host cities for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
Greater Sochi is elongated along the Black Sea coast for 145 kilometers (90 mi). Depending on how one chooses to divide Europe and Asia, some sources claim Sochi is in Europe, whereas if one uses the Caucasus Mountains as the divide, Sochi is in Southwest Asia, falling on the southern (Asian) side of the Greater Caucasus. In terms of human geography, Sochi falls within Krasnodar Krai, which is geographically located entirely within European Russia  as does, generally, all territory of Russia west of the Ural Mountains and Ural River. Sochi is approximately 1,603 kilometers (996 mi) from Moscow.
The city of Sochi borders with Tuapsinsky District in the northwest, with Apsheronsky District and with Maykopsky District of the Republic of Adygea in the north, with Mostovsky District in the northwest, and with Abkhazia in the southeast. From the southwest, it is bounded by the Black Sea.
The vast majority of the population of Sochi lives in a narrow strip along the coast and is organized in independent microdistricts (formerly settlements). The biggest of these microdistricts, from the northwest to the southeast, are Lazarevskoye, Loo, Dagomys, Sochi proper (Tsentralny City District), Khosta, Matsesta, and Adler. The whole city is located on the slopes of the Western Caucasus which descend to the Black Sea and are cut by the rivers. The biggest rivers in Sochi are the Mzymta, which is in fact the longest Black Sea tributary in Russia, and the Shakhe. Other rivers include the Ashe, the Psezuapse, the Sochi, the Khosta, and the Matsesta. The Psou River makes the border with Abkhazia.
The northeastern part of the city belongs to the Caucasus Zapovednik which is a World Heritage Site spanning vast areas in Krasnodar Krai and Adygea. Almost the whole area of the Greater Sochi, with the exception of the coast and of the area which belong to the Caucasus Zapovednik, are included into Sochi National Park.
Sochi has a humid subtropical climate with mild winters (average 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night) in the period from December to March and warm summers (average 24 °C (75 °F) during the day and 16 °C (61 °F) at night) in the period from May to October.
Before the whole area was conquered by Cimmerian, Scythian and Sarmatian invaders, the Zygii people lived in Smaller Abkhazia under the Kingdom of Pontus, then the Roman Empire's influence in antiquity. From the 6th to the 11th centuries, the area successively belonged to the kingdom of Lazica and kingdom of Abkhazia who built a dozen churches within the city boundaries. The Christian settlements along the coast were destroyed by the invading Göktürks, Khazars, Mongols and other nomadic empires whose control of the region was slight. The northern wall of an 11th-century Byzantinesque basilica still stands in the Loo Microdistrict.
From the 14th to the 19th centuries, the region was dominated by the Abkhaz, Ubykh and Adyghe tribes, the current location of the city of Sochi known as Ubykhia was part of historical Circassia, and was controlled by the native people of the local mountaineer clans of the north-west Caucasus, nominally under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, which was their principal trading partner in the Muslim world. The coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of a Caucasian War and Russo-Turkish War, 1828–1829; however, the Circassians did not admit the Russian control over Circassia and kept resisting the newly established Russian outposts along the Circassian coast (Adyghe: Адыгэ хы аушу). Provision of weapons and ammunition from abroad to the Circassians caused a diplomatic conflict between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom that occurred in 1836 over the mission of the Vixen.
The Russians had no detailed knowledge of the area until Baron Feodor Tornau investigated the coastal route from Gelendzhik to Gagra, and across the mountains to Kabarda, in the 1830s. In 1838, the fort of Alexandria, renamed Navaginsky a year later, was founded at the mouth of the Sochi River as part of the Black Sea coastal line, a chain of seventeen fortifications set up to protect the area from recurring Circassian resistance. At the outbreak of the Crimean War, the garrison was evacuated from Navaginsky in order to prevent its capture by the Turks, who effected a landing on Cape Adler soon after.
The last battle of the Caucasian War took place at the Godlikh river on March 18, 1864 O.S., where the ubykhs were defeated by the Dakhovsky regiment of the Russian Army. On March 25, 1864, the Dakhovsky fort was established on the site of the Navaginsky fort. The end of Caucasian War was proclaimed at Kbaade tract (modern Krasnaya Polyana) on June 2 (May 21 O.S.), 1864, by the manifesto of Emperor Alexander II read aloud by Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia.
After the end of Caucasian War (during the period of 1864–1870) almost all Ubykhs and a major part of the Shapsugs, who lived on the territory of modern Sochi, were either killed in the Circassian Genocide or expelled to the Ottoman Empire (see Circassian Genocide). Starting in 1866 the coast was actively colonized by Russians, Armenians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Greeks, Germans, Georgians and other people from inner Russia.
In 1874–1891, the first Russian Orthodox church, St. Michael's Church, was constructed, and the Dakhovsky settlement was renamed Dakhovsky Posad on April 13, 1874 (O.S.). In February 1890, the Sochi Lighthouse was constructed. In 1896, the Dakhovsky Posad was renamed Sochi Posad (after the name of local river) and incorporated into the newly formed Black Sea Governorate. In 1900–1910, Sochi burgeoned into a sea resort. The first resort, "Kavkazskaya Riviera", opened on June 14, 1909 (O.S.). Sochi was granted town status in 1917.
During the Russian Civil War, the littoral area saw sporadic armed clashes involving the Red Army, White movement forces, and the Democratic Republic of Georgia. As a result of the war Sochi has become Russian territory. In 1923, Sochi acquired one of its most distinctive features, a railway which runs from Tuapse to Georgia within a kilometer or two of the coastline. Although this branch of the Northern Caucasus Railway may appear somewhat incongruous in the setting of beaches and sanatoriums, it is still operational and vital to the region's transportation infrastructure.
Sochi was established as a fashionable resort area under Joseph Stalin, who had his favorite dacha built in the city. Stalin's study, complete with a wax statue of the leader, is now open to the public. During Stalin's reign the coast became dotted with imposing Neoclassical buildings, exemplified by the opulent Rodina and Ordzhonikidze sanatoriums. The centerpiece of this early period is Shchusev's Constructivist Institute of Rheumatology (1927–1931). The area was continuously developed until the demise of the Soviet Union.
Following Russia's loss of the traditionally popular resorts of the Crimean peninsula (transferred away from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954 by Nikita Khrushchev), Sochi emerged as the unofficial summer capital of the country. During Vladimir Putin's term in office, the city witnessed a significant increase in investment, although many Russian holidaymakers still flock to the cheaper resorts of neighbouring Abkhazia (Georgia), Ukraine, or to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Additionally, Sochi has also served as the location for the signing of many treaties, especially those between the Georgian, separatist Abkhazian, and separatist South Ossetian governing authorities.
Map of the Caucasian region. Designed and drawn by J. Grassl, 1856
The "Kavkazskaya Riviera" resort in Sochi, ca. 1909
Promenade in Sochi, 1973
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one urban-type settlement and seventy-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Sochi—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Sochi is incorporated as Sochi Urban Okrug.
Sochi is administratively subdivided into four city districts: Tsentralny City District, Lazarevsky City District, Khostinsky City District, and Adlersky City District. Tsentralny City District, comprising the city of Sochi proper, is by far the smallest out of four in terms of the area, and the other three have comparable areas, with Lazarevsky City District being the biggest. In terms of the population, Tsentralny City District is approximately twice as big as each of the other three city districts.
Tsentralny City District
- Michael Archangel Cathedral, a diminutive church built in 1873–1891 to Kaminsky's designs in order to commemorate the victorious conclusion of the Caucasian War.
- The red-granite Archangel Column, erected in 2006 in memory of the Russian soldiers fallen in Sochi during the Caucasian War. It is capped by a 7-metre bronze statue of Sochi's patron saint, Michael the Archangel.
- Sochi Art Museum occupies a large building with a four-columned portico, completed in 1939. The Neoclassical design is by Ivan Zholtovsky.
- Arboretum, a large botanical garden with tropical trees from many countries and the Mayors Alley—the line of palm-trees planted by the mayors of different cities of the world.
- The Winter Theater (1934–1937) is another rigorously Neoclassical edifice, surrounded by 88 Corinthian columns, with a pediment bearing the statues of Terpsichore, Melpomene and Thalia, all three cast by Vera Mukhina.
- Hall of Organ and Chamber Music. Located centrally in the city of Sochi it conducts organ, symphony, chamber-ensemble, choral, vocal music concerts. All year round the Sochi Symphony Orchestra, local actors of the city art groups, famous Russian and international performers, International Contests Winners and Laureates give concerts here.
- The Maritime Passenger Terminal (1955) is notable for its distinctive 71-meter-high steepled tower and four statues symbolizing the cardinal points.
- The Railway Station (1952) is one of the most remarkable buildings of Sochi.
- The Riviera Park was established by Vasily Alexeyevich Khludov in 1883 in the part of the city which later became known as Khludovskaya. The park is popular with tourists and local residents alike. It has a variety of attractions, including an outcrop of funny statues and a "glade of friendship" where magnolia trees were planted by every Soviet cosmonaut, among other notables.
- The Tree of Friendship is a lemon tree planted by Otto Schmidt in 1934. Multiple cultivars from foreign countries were grafted onto this tree as a token of friendship. The associated museum boasts a collection of 20,000 presents from all over the world.
Lazarevsky City District
Lazarevsky City District lies to the northwest from the city center; the 2010 Census showed the population of 63,894people. It is the largest city district by area, covering some 1,744 square kilometers (673 sq mi) and comprising several microdistricts:
- Lazarevskoye, 59 km (37 mi) from the city center, contains a delphinarium, an old church (1903), and a new church (1999). The settlement was founded as a Russian military outpost in 1839 and was named after Admiral Mikhail Lazarev.
- Loo, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, was once owned by Princes Loov, a noble Abkhazian family claiming patrilineal descent from King Anos, whose royal title was sanctioned by Emperor Heraclius in 623 AD. The district contains the ruins of a medieval church, founded in the 8th century, rebuilt in the 11th century, and converted into a fortress in the Late Middle Ages.
- Dagomys, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, has been noted for its botanical garden, established by order of Nicholas II, as well as tea plantations and factories. A sprawling hotel complex was opened there in 1982. Dagomys adjoins Bocharov Ruchey, a dacha built for Kliment Voroshilov in the 1950s, but later upgraded into a country residence of the President of Russia, where he normally spends his vacations and often confers with leaders of other states.
- Golovinka is a historic location at the mouth of the Shakhe River. Formerly marking the border between the Ubykhs and the Shapsugs, the settlement was noted by Italian travelers of the 17th century as Abbasa. On May 3, 1838, it was the site of the Subashi landing of the Russians, who proceeded to construct Fort Golovinsky where many convicted Decembrists used to serve. The fort was intentionally destroyed by Russian forces at the beginning of the Crimean War, so as to avoid its capture by the enemy.
- Fort Godlik, of which little remains, had a turbulent history. It was built at the mouth of the Godlik River in the Byzantine period (5th to 8th centuries), was destroyed by the Khazars and revived by the Genoese in the High Middle Ages.
Khostinsky City District
Khostinsky City District, sprawling to the southeast from the city center, occupies approximately 374 square kilometers (144 sq mi), with a population of 65,229 as of the 2010 Census. The district is traversed by many rivulets which give their names to the microdistricts of Matsesta ("flame-colored river"), Kudepsta, and Khosta ("the river of boars").
Adlersky City District
Adlersky City District, with an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and a population of 76,534 people as of the 2010 Census, is the southernmost district of the city, located just north of the border with Abkhazia. Until the establishment of Greater Sochi in 1961, it was administered as a separate town, which had its origin in an ancient Sadz village and a medieval Genoese trading post.
Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave that contains traces of human habitation from about 30,000 years ago. The upland part of the district includes a network of remote mountain villages (auls), the Estonian colony at Estosadok, and the ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana which will host the events (Alpine and Nordic) of the 2014 Winter Olympics.
Also located here are the largest trout fishery in Russia (founded in 1964) and a breeding nursery for great apes.
|Source, unless otherwise marked:|
Before 1864 Sochi was a little village. In the North, a few hundred Sunni Muslim Shapsugs, a part of the Adyghe nation, lived around Tkhagapsh, near Lazarevskoye. The Adyghe people (also known as Circassians) converted to Islam from Christianity in the 17th century.
Currently, Sochi is a large predominantly Christian city, though there are thought to be around 20,000 Muslims (5% of inhabitants) living there now (the majority are from Adyghe) plus other Eastern Caucasians, Turks, Tatars, and other smaller Muslim groups.
A mosque was built in 2008 by United Arab Emirates in the central area of Bytkha, in addition to the old mosque being around 40 km (25 miles) north of the city center in the Adyghe aul of Tkhagapsh.
There are around thirty Christian Orthodox churches, the largest being St. Michael's, and two monasteries, plus two Catholic churches, one in the center of Sochi and the other in Lazarevskoye. The Armenian community, which is important in Sochi, gathers in about ten churches.
Sochi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), at the lower elevations. Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. In the coldest months — January and February — the average temperature is about 10 °C (50 °F) during the day, above 3 °C (37 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 9 °C (48 °F). In the warmest months — July and August — the temperature typically ranges from 25 to 29 °C (77 to 84 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 23–24 °C (73–75 °F). Yearly sunshine hours are around 2,200. Generally, the summer season lasts six months, from May to October. Two months – April and November – are transitional; sometimes temperatures reach 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of around 16 °C (61 °F) during the day and 9 °C (48 °F) at night. December, January, February and March are the coldest months, with average temperature (of these four months) 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. Average annual precipitation is about 1,700 millimeters (67 in). Sochi lies at 8b/9a hardiness zone, so the city supports different types of palm trees. Sochi is situated on the same latitude as Nice but strong cold winds from Asia make winters less warm. In fact, temperatures drop below freezing every winter for one or two days. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F), on July 30, 2000, and the lowest temperature recorded was −13.4 °C (7.9 °F) on January 25, 1892.
|Climate data for Sochi|
|Record high °C (°F)|| 21.2
|Average high °C (°F)|| 10.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| 5.9
|Average low °C (°F)|| 2.5
|Record low °C (°F)|| −13.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)|| 184
|Avg. rainy days||19||18||18||18||16||14||11||10||13||15||17||20||189|
|Avg. snowy days||6||6||3||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||4||20|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||96.1||107.4||145.7||162.0||220.1||258.0||279.0||282.1||225.0||195.3||120.0||86.8||2,177.5|
|Source: Pogoda.ru.net, Climatebase.ru, HKO for data of sunshine hours|
|9.6 °C (49.3 °F)||8.7 °C (47.7 °F)||9.6 °C (49.3 °F)||11.2 °C (52.2 °F)||15.2 °C (59.4 °F)||19.6 °C (67.3 °F)||24.0 °C (75.2 °F)||25.3 °C (77.5 °F)||23.1 °C (73.6 °F)||19.5 °C (67.1 °F)||14.9 °C (58.8 °F)||11.5 °C (52.7 °F)||16.0 °C (60.8 °F)|
Layout and landmarks
Sochi is unique among larger Russian cities as having some aspects of a subtropical resort. Apart from the scenic Caucasus Mountains, pebble and sand beaches, the city attracts vacation-goers with its subtropical vegetation, numerous parks, monuments, and extravagant Stalinist architecture. About two million people visit Greater Sochi each summer, when the city is home to the annual film festival "Kinotavr" and a getaway for Russia's elite.
One of the significant places of Sochi is Friendship Tree that grows in the Friendship Tree Garden.
Public transport is represented mainly by bus and taxi. Sochi is served by the Adler-Sochi International Airport. A kind of non-mass public transport are also two funicular (the Central military sanatorium and resort Ordzhonikidze) and three cable cars (at arboretum sanatorium "Dawn" and pension "Neva") also has several cableways in Krasnaya Polyana.
The Sochi Port terminal building was built in 1955 by Karo Alabyan and Leonid Karlik in Stalinist architecture. It is topped with a 71-meter steepled tower. Sculptures embodying seasons and cardinal points are set above the tower's three tiers.
Five of the railway stations of Sochi were renovated for the 2014 Winter Olympics. These are Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta and Khosta railway stations. In Adler city district of Sochi, the original railway station was preserved and new railway station was built near it. Another new railway station was built in Estosadok, close to Krasnaya Polyana.
At some point, plans to construct the light metro network to serve the Olympics were considered; however, the Sochi Light Metro plan was abandoned in favor of the reconstruction of the railway.
Sochi is also known for its sport facilities: a local tennis school spawned the careers of such notable players as Grand Slam champions Maria Sharapova and Yevgeny Kafelnikov (Kafelnikov spent much of his childhood here, while Sharapova relocated to Florida at the age of seven). In late 2005, the Russian Football Union announced that it was planning to establish a year-round training center for the country's national teams in Sochi. The city's warm climate was cited as one of the main incentives. And it's home to FC Zhemchuzhina who play in the Russian First Division.
2014 Winter Olympics and Paralympics
In June 2006, the International Olympic Committee announced that Sochi had been selected as a finalist city to host the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics. On July 4, 2007, Sochi was announced as the host city of the 2014 Winter Games, edging out Pyeongchang, South Korea and Salzburg, Austria.
This will be Russia's first time hosting the Winter Olympic Games, and its first time hosting the Paralympic Games. The site of a training centre for aspiring Olympic athletes, as of 2008, the city has no world-class level athletic facilities fit for international competition. To get the city ready for the Olympics, the Russian government has committed to a $12 billion investment package, shared 60–40 between the government and private sector. According to some estimates, the investments necessary to bring the location up to Olympic standards may exceed that of any previous Olympic games. By January 2014 the construction costs have been reported to exceed the $50 billion mark, making it the most expensive Olympic Games in history.
The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi have been surrounded by concern and controversy following a new federal law approved in Russia in June 2013 that bans "homosexual propaganda to minors". Many voices have since then claimed to boycott the 2014 Winter Olympics, including British actor Stephen Fry who published an open letter to David Cameron and to the International Olympic Committee asking for a boycott and relocation of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.
The state-controlled RAO UES announced in July 2007 that it might spend 30 billion roubles (about US$1.2 billion) on upgrading the electrical power system in the Sochi area by 2014. The power generating companies Inter RAO UES and RusHydro would have to build or modernize four thermal power plants and four hydroelectric plants—and the federal grid company FGC UES has to replace the Central-Shepsi electricity transmission line, which reportedly often fails in bad weather. The new power line would run partly on power towers and partly across the bottom of the Black Sea. By 2011, the power supply of the resort area would increase by 1129 MW—of which 300 MW would be used for Olympic sports facilities “The cost of the work is estimated at 83.6 billion rubles (about US $3.26 billion), of which 50 billion rubles (about US$2 billion dollars) will go to investments in the electricity grid,” power company announced. They did not say how much of the bill the state would foot. In February 2007, when UES had planned to spend 48.8 billion rubles (about US$1.9 billion) on the Sochi area, the share the state had been ready to pay 38 billion roubles (about US$1.48 billion) of that.
The coming of 2014 Olympics also urges the construction of a medium capacity rapid transit system, the Sochi Light Metro. The current alignment would connect the Sochi Olympic Village, Sochi International Airport, two major railway stations of Northern Caucasus Railway, Sochi city centre, and the alpine skiing area of Roza Khutor at Krasnaya Polyana.
Other sports events
- Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk, physicist
- Andre Geim, physicist, graphene researcher and 2010 Nobel Prize winner
- Yevgeny Kafelnikov, tennis player
- Daria Kondakova, rhythmic gymnast
- Grigory Leps, singer, songwriter, musician
- Slava Metreveli, Soviet association football player
- Vladimir Nemshilov, Olympic swimmer
- Boris Nemtsov, politician
- Mordechai Spiegler, Russian-Israeli association football player and manager
- Vladimir Tkachenko, basketball player
- Elena Vesnina, tennis player
- Alexey Voyevoda, bobsledder and professional armwrestler
- Kharis Yunichev, the first Soviet male swimmer to win an Olympic medal
- Maria Sharapova, tennis player
Twin towns and sister cities
Sochi is twinned with:
View of Sochi
Sochi Gorky Street
Sochi. Hall of Organ and Chamber Music
Saint Michael's Cathedral
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Law #679-KZ
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Official website of Sochi (Russian)
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Городское Собрание Сочи. Решение №89 от 14 июля 2009 г. «Об утверждении генерального плана городского округа города Сочи». Вступил в силу со дня опубликования. (City Assembly of Sochi. Decision #89 of July 14, 2009 On the Adoption of the General Plan of the Urban Okrug of the City of Sochi. Effective as of the publication date.).
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- ↑ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- ↑ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Exposition of the Historical Museum of Sochi, partly reflected in Russian in История Сочи (History of Sochi) at the official site of the city
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Entry on Sochi (Russian)
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Сочи in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
- ↑ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- ↑ Sochi hosts 2014 Winter Olympics BBC Sport, July 4, 2007
- ↑ PM Putin confirms Russian GP for 2014 GPUpdate, October 15, 2010
- ↑ National Geographic Atlas. National Geographic Society. 2011. p. 59.
- ↑ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 1997. pp. 37, 80.
- ↑ Department of Investments and Project Support of Krasnodar region: Main page. Investkuban.ru. Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
- ↑ Krasnodar region location on the map of Europe. Investkuban.ru. Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
- ↑ Krasnodar Region. Eng.spb-venchur.ru. Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
- ↑ European Russia – Map of Russia, European Russia Map, Russia Countries. Worldatlas.com. Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
- ↑ Russia Europe. Wwp.greenwichmeantime.com (May 16, 2011). Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 Travel Destinations Sochi Russia by Michael Totten | Traveler's Guide 360. Travelersguide360.com (11 February 2013). Retrieved on January 3, 2014.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification".
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 Drozdov, V. A.; Glezer, O. B.; Nefedova, T. G.; Shabdurasulov, I. V. (1992). "Ecological and geographical characteristics of the coastal zone of the Black Sea". GeoJournal 27 (2): 169. doi:10.1007/BF00717701.
- ↑ "Византийский храм в Лоо" (in Russian). Архитектура Сочи. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Sochi – from ancient sites to 2014 Olympics, information from the Historical Museum of Sochi
- ↑ Peter Hopkirk The great game: On Secret Service in High Asia, Chapter 12 “The Greatest Fortress in the World”, pp. 158–159, Oxford University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-19-280232-1
- ↑ Stalin's ghost haunts Black Sea hotel at Mail & Guardian Online, Retrieved February 7, 2014
- ↑ Голубева, Елена. "Олимпийская столица - и для спортсменов, и для бизнесменов" (in Russian). Komsomolskaya Pravda. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- ↑ Cordula Gdaniec, ed., Cultural Diversity in Russian Cities: The Urban Landscape in the Post-Soviet Era (Berghahn Books, 2010), 117.
- ↑ Kimitaka Matsuzato, "Transnational minorities challenging the interstate system: Mingrelians, Armenians, and Muslims in and around Abkhazia," Nationalities Papers 39 (September 2011), 820.
- ↑ 1897 Census. demoscope.ru (in Russian)
- ↑ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- ↑ Федеральная Служба Государственной Статистики. Краснодарский краевой комитет государственной статистики «Национальный состав и владение языками, гражданство. Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2002 года по Краснодарскому краю. Том 4», г. Краснодар, 2005
- ↑ Population of Russian Federation by cities, towns, and districts as of January 1, 2007: Rosstat, Moscow, 2007
- ↑ Половинкина Т. В. Сочинское Причерноморье – Нальчик (2006) pp. 216–218, ISBN 588195775X
- ↑ 4. Население (R_04.doc) in Российский статистический ежегодник 2011, www.gks.ru, ISBN 978-5-89476-319-4
- ↑ "Rekhaniya". Jewish Virtual Library.
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 Sochi: a city with no mosque, OpenDemocracy, October 22, 2010
- ↑ В ауле Тхагапш произошло знаменательное для верующих мусульман событие. (in Russian). Shapsugiya.ru (September 9, 2010). Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
- ↑ Rybak, Elena A.; Rybak, Oleg O. and Zasedatelev, Yuri V. (1994). "Complex geographical analysis of the Greater Sochi region on the Black Sea coast". GeoJournal 34 (4): 507–513.
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Sochi" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved May 23, 2013.
- ↑ Сводные данные С 2000 г. climatebase.ru
- ↑ "Climatological Information for Soci, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
- ↑ Sochi Water temperature 1977–2006 (in Russian), Retrieved August 9, 2012.
- ↑ Sochi Weather Forecast and Current data
- ↑ "Сочи, Пхенчхан и Зальцбург — претенденты на Олимпиаду-2014" (in Russian). ITAR-TASS. July 4, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-07-05. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- ↑ Western Caucasus at Unesco Heritage Site. Retrieved July 7, 2007
- ↑ International Olympic Committee (July 4, 2007). "Sochi Elected as Host City of XXII Olympic Winter Games". Retrieved July 4, 2007.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 A Major Tuneup for a Sports Machine NYTimes.com, July 29, 2008
- ↑ Sochi, Russia wins, awarded 2014 Winter Olympics. sportsline.com (July 4, 2007). Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
- ↑ Iht.com: Sochi Olympic bid organizers says venue projects conform to environmental norms, federal law, Retrieved on July 7, 2007
- ↑ "Sochi 2014: Do the numbers add up?". CNN.com. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
- ↑ BBC News – Q&A: Gay rights in Russia. Bbc.co.uk (August 13, 2013). Retrieved on January 3, 2014.
- ↑ Fry, Stephen (August 7, 2013) An Open Letter to David Cameron and the IOC. stephenfry.com
- ↑ Winter, Jana. "US, Russian forces hunt jihadist widow feared inside Olympic zone". FoxNews.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- ↑ Power Supply to Be Stepped Up to Sochi by 2014. Kommersant. July 6, 2007
- ↑ Silk Way Rally. silkwayrally.com.
- ↑ English, Steven (October 14, 2010). "Russia set to announce race from 2014". autosport.com (Haymarket Publications). Retrieved October 14, 2010.
- ↑ Andre Geim – Biographical, Nobel Prize winners (Physics, 2010)
- ↑ Сильнейшие спортсмены СССР наши коллеги по движению «Мастерс»: Т-Я. swimmingmasters.ru
- ↑ Twin town of Sochi (Russia). cheltenham.gov.uk
- ↑ Website of the President of France. Elysee.fr. Retrieved on 26 July 2012.
- ↑ Gemellaggi. Official website of Rimini
- ↑ "Tiesitkö, että" (in Finnish) in Ee-mail, January 2007, p. 6. espoo.fi
- ↑ Online Directory: Russian Federation, Eurasia. sister-cities.org
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 67.2 Official website of Sochi (international). The page spotlights similarities of the twin towns to Sochi in that all of them are "summer resorts".
- ↑ "Греческий Волос и российский Сочи стали городами-побратимами". Interfax. 26 May 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2007.
- Управление по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Администрации Краснодарского края. Справочная информация №34.01-707/13-03 от 23 мая 2013 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края». (Department of Cooperation with the Organs of the Local Self-Government of the Administration of Krasnodar Krai. Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03 of May 23, 2013 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai. ).
- Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №679-КЗ от 1 апреля 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город-курорт Сочи и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №1756-КЗ от 3 июня 2009 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №64–65, 17 апреля 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #679-KZ of April 1, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Resort City of Sochi and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #1756-KZ of June 3, 2009 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Krasnodar Krai on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Historical Dictionary of Sochi, ISBN 9781876586232 [Currently the only major work on the city in English.]
- Journal of a residence in Circassia during the years 1837, 1838, and 1839 – Bell, James Stanislaus
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sochi.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sochi.|
- Official website of Sochi
- Secrieru, Stanislav: "The 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi: Implications for the Caucasus" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No.19
- Weather Report for Sochi, Russia
- Sochi at funiq.eu