2014 Winter Olympics
|Host city||Sochi, Russia|
"Hot. Cool. Yours."|
(Russian: Жаркие. Зимние. Твои.)
|Athletes participating||2,800+ (estimated)|
|Events||98 in 7 sports (15 disciplines)|
|Opening ceremony||7 February|
|Closing ceremony||23 February|
|Officially opened by||Vladimir Putin|
|Athlete's Oath||Ruslan Zakharov|
|Judge's Oath||Vyacheslav Vedenin|
|Coach's Oath||Anastasia Popkova|
|Stadium||Fisht Olympic Stadium|
|Part of a series on|
Scheduled for 7-23 February 2014, opening rounds in figure skating, skiing, and snowboard competitions were held on the eve of the Opening Ceremony, 6 February 2014. Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics are being organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOC). Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City. It is the first Olympics in Russia since the breakup of the USSR in 1991. The USSR was the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.
98 events in 15 winter sport disciplines are being held in the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of 12 accounting for gender—will be held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women's ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing, ski and snowboard slopestyle, and snowboard parallel slalom. The events will be held around two clusters of new venues; an Olympic Park constructed in Sochi's Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium and the Games' indoor venues located within walking distance, and snow events in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana.
In preparation, organizers focused on modernizing the telecommunications, electric power, and transportation infrastructures of the region. While originally budgeted at US$12 billion, various factors caused the budget to expand to over US$51 billion, surpassing the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing as the most expensive Olympics in history.
The lead-up to this Olympics was marked by major controversies, including allegations of corruption leading to the aforementioned cost overruns, concerns for the safety and human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) athletes and supporters during the Games due to the country's recent ban on the promotion of LGBT relationships to minors, which led to ongoing protests, and various security concerns over threats by jihadist groups tied to the insurgency in the North Caucasus.
Sochi was elected on 4 July 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) session held in Guatemala City, Guatemala, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria, and Pyeongchang, South Korea. This will be the first time that the Russian Federation will host the Winter Olympics. The U.S.S.R. was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in and around Moscow.
|2014 Host City Election – ballot results|
|City||Country (NOC)||Round 1||Round 2|
As of October 2013, the estimated cost of the 2014 Winter Olympics had topped US$51 billion. This total, if borne out, would be over four times the initial budget of $12 billion (compared to the $8 billion spent for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver), and would make the Sochi games the most expensive Olympics in history, exceeding the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
| Funds approved|
from 2006 until 2014
|Year||Billions of rubles|
According to Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Organizing Committee President and CEO Dmitry Chernyshenko, partnership and commercial programs allowed the use of funds generated by Sochi 2014 for the 2009–10 development period, postponing the need for the state funds guaranteed by the Russian Government. He confirmed that the Organizing Committee had raised more than $500 million through marketing in the first five months of 2009. The Russian Government provided nearly 327 billion roubles (about US$10 billion) for the total development, expansion and hosting of the Games. 192 billion roubles coming from the federal budget and 7 billion roubles from the Krasnodar Krai budget and from the Sochi budget. The organizers expect to have a surplus of US$300 million when the Games conclude.
Financing from non-budget sources (including private investor funds) is distributed as follows:
- Tourist infrastructure: $2.6 billion
- Olympic venues: $500 million
- Transport infrastructure: $270 million
- Power supply infrastructure: $100 million
With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C (42.8 °F) and a humid subtropical climate, Sochi will be the warmest city to have hosted a Winter Olympic Games. Sochi 2014 will be the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking; all Sochi venues, Olympic Park bars and restaurants and public areas will be smoke-free during the Games.
Sochi Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)
The Sochi Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretin Valley, about 4 km (2.5 miles) from Russia's border with Georgia. The venues will be clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza will be built, allowing all indoor venues to be within walking distance. The new venues include:
- Fisht Olympic Stadium – ceremonies (opening/closing) 40,000 spectators
- Bolshoy Ice Dome – ice hockey (final), 12,000 spectators
- Shayba Arena – ice hockey, 7,000 spectators
- Adler Arena Skating Center – speed skating, 8,000 spectators
- Iceberg Skating Palace – figure skating, short track speed skating, 12,000 spectators
- Ice Cube Curling Center – curling, 3,000 spectators
- Main Olympic village
- International broadcasting centre and main press room
Krasnaya Polyana (Mountain Cluster)
- Laura Biathlon & Ski Complex – Biathlon, Cross-country skiing
- Rosa Khutor Extreme Park – Freestyle skiing and Snowboarding
- Rosa Khutor Alpine Resort – Alpine skiing
- Sliding Center Sanki – Bobsleigh, Luge and Skeleton
- RusSki Gorki Jumping Center – Ski jumping and Nordic combined (both ski jumping and cross-country skiing on a 2 km route around the arena)
- Rosa Khutor Plateau Olympic Village
Tentative post-Olympic usage
After the Olympics, a Formula One street circuit is planned for the site. The deal to hold the Russian Grand Prix was signed on 14 October 2010, and runs from 2014 to 2020. The first race will take place after the Closing Ceremony of the Games, but the IOC has announced that the race will be delayed until 2015 if construction of the circuit interferes with preparations for the 2014 Olympics.
The emblem of the 2014 Winter Olympics, unveiled in December 2009, carries a minimalistic style, and unlike previous Olympic emblems, consists of typefaces with no drawn elements at all. While more elaborate designs with influence from Khokhloma were considered, organizers eventually decided to use a simpler and more "futuristic" design instead. The "Sochi" and "2014" lettering is designed to mirror each other vertically (particularly on the "hi" and "14" characters), "reflecting" the contrasts of Russia's landscape (such as Sochi itself, a meeting point between the Black Sea and the Western Caucasus).
Critics, including Russian bloggers, panned the logo for being too simplistic and lacking any real symbolism; Guo Chunning, designer of the 2008 Summer Olympics emblem Dancing Beijing, criticized the logo for its lack of detail, and believed it should have contained more elements that represented winter and Russia's national identity, aside from its blue color scheme and its use of .ru, the top-level domain of Russia.
For the first time in Olympic history, a public vote was held to decide the mascots for the 2014 Winter Olympics; the 10 finalists, along with the results, were unveiled during live specials on Channel One. On 26 February 2011, the official mascots were unveiled, consisting of a polar bear, a European hare, and an Amur leopard. The initial rounds consisted of online voting among submissions, while the final round involved text messaging.
A satirical mascot known as Zoich (based on the "2014" lettering from the Sochi emblem, converted to cyrillic script), a fuzzy blue frog with hypnotic multi-coloured rings (sharing the colors of the Olympic rings) on his eyeballs and the Imperial Crown ("to remind about statehood and spirituality"), proved popular in initial rounds of online voting, and became a local internet meme among Russians (with some comparing it to Futurama's "Hypnotoad"). Despite its popularity, Zoich did not qualify for the final round of voting, with its creator, political cartoonist Egor Zhgun, claiming that organizers were refusing to respect public opinion. However, it was later revealed that the mascot was deliberately planted into the vote by organizers to help promote the online vote.
The official Olympic video game is the fourth game in the Mario & Sonic series, Mario & Sonic at the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games, it was released by Sega for the Wii U on 8 November 2013 in Europe, and 15 November 2013 in North America.
The Olympic infrastructure is being constructed according to a Federal Target Program (FTP). In June 2009 the Games' organizers reported they are one year ahead in building the main Olympic facilities as compared to recent Olympic Games. In November 2011 IOC President Jacques Rogge was in Sochi and concluded that the city has made significant progress since he last visited eighteen months earlier.
According to the FTP, US$580 million would be spent on construction and modernization of telecommunications in the region. Avaya was named by the Sochi Organizing Committee as the official supplier of telecommunications equipment. Avaya provides the data network equipment, including switches, routers, security, telephones and contact center systems. It provides engineers and technicians to design and test the systems, and works with other technology partners to provide athletes, dignitaries and fans information about the Games.
- A network of TETRA mobile radio communications for 100 user groups (with capacity of 10,000 subscribers)
- 712 km (442 mi) of fiber-optic cables along the Anapa-Dzhubga-Sochi highways and Dzhubga–Krasnodar branch
- Digital broadcasting infrastructure, including radio and television broadcasting stations (building and communications towers) with coverage from Grushevaya Polyana (Pear Glade) to Sochi and Anapa cities. The project also includes construction of infocommunications centre for broadcasting abroad via three HDTV satellites.
In January 2012, the newest equipment for the television coverage of the Games arrived in the port of Adler. Prepared specifically for the Games, a team of regional specialists and the latest technology provide a qualitatively new level of television production in the region.
In November 2013, it was reported that the fiber-optic cable that was built by the Federal Communications Agency, Rossvyaz, had no operator. With Rostelecom and Megafon both refusing to operate it, the line was transferred to the ownership of the state enterprise Center of the IT world (Russian: Центр МИР ИТ).
Russian mobile phone operator Megafon expanded and improved Sochi's telecom infrastructure with over 700 new 2G/3G/4G cell towers. Sochi is the first Games to offer 4G connectivity at a speed of 10 MB/sec. It has started to provide content delivery services to Russian state television and radio. The content delivery network of Megafon unites servers located in the major cities of Russia, into a single infrastructure that can speed up information from the Internet for users. CDN service allows major media companies to provide users quick access to content without interruption and delays when transferring large amounts of data. The Russian segment of the bandwidth of the CDN- network of MegaFon is about 250 Gbit/s.
MTS provide full coverage of the Sochi and the Krasnodar Territory, with network capacity doubled. In preparation for the Olympics, Tele2 Russia increased the number of base stations in Sochi and Krasnaya Polyana by 15% and the network capacity up to 70%, and provides 100% coverage of the Olympic facilities in the mountain cluster.
Rostelecom also built LTE 4th generation network. It covers an area of 40 km2 in the mountains and 50 km2 in the coastal clusters. The 4th generation is available in all major Olympic venues in the Imereti lowland and mountain cluster, as well as Sochi airport and in the Olympic Park. The Russian Ministry of Communications, together with mobile operators organized internetwork roaming at Olympic venues. This measure allows subscribers access to the largest Russian operators at their standard fare to use the network of MegaFon, which has the exclusive right to work at Olympic venues.
Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network (RTRS), the state operator of Russia's extensive broadcasting infrastructure, commissioned three mobile digital television broadcasting complexes. Mobile systems can broadcast a signal to a radius of about 30 kilometers, depending on terrain. They are used as a backup transmitter multiplexes two and two FM-radio stations in the event of a fault or power failure in fixed installations, as well as for the organization of video play-out.
On 11 December 2013 Rostelecom said it had completed its infrastructure for the games. The transport component of the infrastructure includes about 500 kilometres of fiber-optic communication lines linking 35 facilities. The main network's capacity has been increased to 140 Gbit/sec. The Olympic Information Technology Center was the core of the project, the largest IT facility for Sochi with an area of more than 2,000 square meters. The Center is aimed to process information flows, manage the Games' united network and integrate special solutions for each sport.
In January 2014, Rostelecom reported that it had connected the Olympic media center in Sochi to the Internet and organized channels of communication with the main media center of the Olympic Games in the coastal cluster and press center in Moscow. The media center was built at total cost of 17 million rubles.
A five-year strategy for increasing power supply in the Sochi region was presented by Russian energy experts during a seminar on 29 May 2009, held by the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee, and attended by International Olympic Committee (IOC) experts and officials from the Russian Ministry of Regional Development, the Russian Ministry of Energy, the State Corporation Olimpstroy and the Krasnodar Krai administration.
The event was a part of the Olympic Games Knowledge Management (OGKM) program by the IOC.
According to the strategy, the capacity of the regional energy network will increase by two and a half times by 2014, guaranteeing stable power supply during and after the Games.
Power demand of Sochi in the end of May 2009 was 424 MW. Power demand of the Olympic infrastructure is expected to be about 340 MW.
- Poselkovaya electrical substation became operational in early 2009
- Sochi thermal power station is being reconstructed (expected power output is 160 MW)
- Laura and Rosa Khutor electrical substations were completed in November 2010
- Mzymta electrical substation was completed in March 2011
- Krasnopolyanskaya hydroelectric power station was completed in 2010
- Adler CHP station design and construction was completed in 2012. Expected power output is 360 MW
- Bytkha substation, under construction with two transformers 25 MW each, includes dependable microprocessor-based protection
Earlier plans also include building combined cycle (steam and gas) power stations near the cities of Tuapse and Novorossiysk and construction of a cable-wire powerline, partially on the floor of the Black Sea.
President Putin had instructed Alexander Novak, the country's Energy Minister to exert strict control over the energy system of Sochi to prevent possible power failures during the games. Sochi's electricity distribution network included 900 kilometres (560 mi) of cables and overhead transmission lines, as well as 500 substations.
The transport infrastructure prepared to support the Olympics includes many roads, tunnels, bridges, interchanges, railroads and stations in and around Sochi. Among others, 8 flyovers, 102 bridges, tens of tunnels and a bypass route for heavy trucks — 367 km of roads were paved.
The existing 102 km (63 mi) Tuapse to Adler railroad was renovated to provide double track throughout, increasing capacity and enabling a reliable regional service to be provided and extending to the airport. In December 2009 Russian Railways ordered 38 Siemens Mobility Desiro trains for delivery in 2013 for use during the Olympics, with an option for a further 16 which would be partly built in Russia.
At the Sochi airport, a new terminal had been built along a 3.5 km (2.2 mi) runway extension, possibly overlapping Mzymta River. Backup airports will be built in Gelendzhik, Mineralnye Vody and Krasnodar by 2009. A new railway line was built to connect central Sochi and the local airport. The line is served by Lastochka trains. This new type of electric locomotive, based on the Siemens Desiro design, has been developed for commuting transportation in the Russian environment. All Russian Railways facilities in Sochi have been built or retrofitted to accommodate disabled passengers.
At the Port of Sochi, a new offshore terminal 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from the shore allows docking for cruise ships with capacities of 3,000 passengers. The cargo terminal of the sea port is to be moved from the centre of Sochi.
Road ways are detoured, some going around the construction site and others being cut off.
In May 2009, Russian Railways started the construction of tunnel complex No. 1 (the final total is six) on the combined road (automobile and railway) from Adler to Alpica Service Mountain Resort in the Krasnaya Polyana region. The tunnel complex No. 1 is located near Akhshtyr in Adlersky City District, and includes:
- Escape tunnel, 2.25 kilometres (1.40 mi), completed in 2010
- Road tunnel, 2,153 metres (7,064 ft), completed in 2013
- One-track railway tunnel, 2,473 metres (8,114 ft), completed in 2013
In addition, Sochi's railway stations were renovated. These are Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta, Khosta, Lazarevskaya, and Loo railway stations. In Adler, a new railway station was built while the original building was preserved, and in the Olympic park cluster, a new station was built from scratch, the Olympic Park railway station. Another new railway station was built in Estosadok, close to Krasnaya Polyana.
New bus routes for the guests of the Olympics have begun operating in the city, stretching some 150 km along the Black Sea coast. The buses run with 5-minute intervals during the Games. Some 963 operate during the Olympics, while half of all the transport facilities will be used during the Paralympics. The guests will be able to board buses at transportation hubs, located near the railway station in the centre of Sochi and also in Matsesta, Khosta, and Adler neighborhoods, as well as in Krasnaya Polyana, Estosadok, Rosa Khutor Alpine Center, and near the Sliding Center Sanki.
Federation Island will be built in the sea near the Lesser Akhun subdistrict of Khostinsky City District. The island will be shaped like the Russian Federation. It will hold hotels and offices.
Significant funds are being spent on construction of an advanced sewage treatment system in Sochi, designed by Olimpstroy. The system meets BREF standards and employs top available technologies for environment protection, including tertiary treatment with microfiltration.
Six post offices will be opened at competition venues, two of them in the main media center in the Olympic Park and in the mountain village of Estosadok. In addition to standard services clients will have access to unique services including two new products: "Fotomarka" and "Retropismo". Fotomarka gives the opportunity to get a stylized post block with eight souvenir stamps with one's own photos, using the services of a photographer in the office. Retropismo service gives the customer to write their own stylus or pen on antique paper with further letters, winding string and wax seal affixing. All new postal items and Post Offices in Sochi will be working during the Olympics until late at night all week, and workers were trained to speak English.
The torch relay lasted 123 days and measured 40,000 kilometers in length. A total of 14,000 torch carriers took part in the relay. The Olympic flame was taken to the Caucasus’ tallest peak — Mount Elbrus, lowered to the bottom of Lake Baikal and visited the North Pole and the International Space Station.
On 29 September 2013, the Olympic torch was lit in Ancient Olympia, beginning a seven-day journey across Greece and on to Russia, then the torch relay will start at Moscow on 7 October 2013 before passing 83 Russian cities and arriving at Sochi on the day of the opening ceremony, 7 February 2014. It is the longest torch relay in Olympic history, a 40,000-mile route that will pass through all regions of the country, from Kaliningrad in the west to Chukotka in the east.
The Olympic torch reached the North Pole for first time via an nuclear-powered icebreaker (50 Let Pobedy). The torch was also passed for the first time in space; the flame was carried on flight Soyuz TMA-11M to the International Space Station (ISS), and the spacecraft itself was adorned with Olympic-themed livery, including the Games' emblem. Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazansky passed the torch at the outlet of the ISS. The torch returned to Earth five days later on board Soyuz TMA-09M. The torch also reached the Europe's highest mountain Mount Elbrus, and even the depths of Siberia's Lake Baikal.
Participating National Olympic Committees
A record 88 nations have qualified to compete, which beats the previous record of 82 set at the last Winter Olympics in Vancouver. The number of athletes qualified or in qualifying position are listed below per country. Seven nations, Dominica, Malta, Paraguay, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, and Zimbabwe, are all making their Winter Olympics debut. Kristina Krone qualified to compete in her second consecutive games for her nation of Puerto Rico but the island's Olympic Committee chose not to send her to compete again as they did in 2010. Similarly, South Africa decided not to send alpine skier Sive Speelman to Sochi. Algeria also did not enter its only qualified athlete, Mehdi-Selim Khelifi.
|Countries that participated in 2010, but not 2014.||Countries that are participating in 2014, but did not in 2010.|
| British Virgin Islands|
- India's athletes will compete under the Olympic Flag. India was suspended in December 2012 over the election process of the Indian Olympic Association.
During the Games some countries will have a national house, a meeting places for supporters, athletes and other followers. Houses can be either free for visitors to access or they can have limited access by invitation only.
|Austria||Mountain Cluster||Austria Tirol House||Official website|
|Canada||Coastal Cluster (Next to Fisht Olympic Stadium||Canada House|
|France||Gornaya Karusel (Mountain Cluster)||Club France||Official website|
|Germany||Estosadok, Krasnaya Polyana (Mountain Cluster)||German House||Official website|
|Japan||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||Japan House|
|Netherlands||Azimut Hotel Resort (near Coastal Cluster)||Holland Heineken House||Official website|
|Russia||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||NOC Hospitality Houses of Russia|
|Slovakia||Sochi railway station||Slovak Point|
|South Korea||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||Pyeongchang 2018 Korea House (no official)|
|Switzerland||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||House of Switzerland||Official website|
|United States||Olympic Park (Coastal Cluster)||USA House|
98 events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports were included in the 2014 Winter Olympics. The three skating sports disciplines are figure skating, speed skating, and short track speed skating. There are six skiing sport disciplines—alpine, cross-country skiing, freestyle, Nordic combined, ski jumping and snowboarding. The two bobsleigh sports disciplines are bobsleigh and skeleton. The other four sports are biathlon, curling, ice hockey, and luge. A total of twelve new events will be contested to make it the largest Winter Olympics to date. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sports discipline.
- Alpine skiing (10) ()
- Biathlon (11) ()
- Bobsleigh (3) ()
- Cross-country skiing (12) ()
- Curling (2) ()
- Figure skating (5) ()
- Freestyle skiing (10) ()
- Ice hockey (2) ()
- Luge (4) ()
- Nordic combined (3) ()
- Short track speed skating (8) ()
- Skeleton (2) ()
- Ski jumping (4) ()
- Snowboarding (10) ()
- Speed skating (12) ()
On 6 April 2011, the IOC accepted a number of events that were submitted by their respective sports federations to be considered for inclusion into the official program of these Olympic Games. The events include:
Team alpine skiing was presented as a candidate for inclusion in the Olympic program but the Executive board of the IOC rejected this proposal. The International Ski Federation persisted with the nomination and this was considered. There were reports of Bandy possibly being added to the sports program, but the IOC rejected this request. Subsequently, the international governing body, Federation of International Bandy, decided to that Irkutsk and Shelekhov in Russia, would host the 2014 Bandy World Championships just before the Olympics.
On 28 November 2006, the Executive Board of the IOC decided not to include the following sports in the review process of the program.
Sochi's medal design was unveiled in May 2013. The design is intended to resemble Sochi's landscape, with a semi-translucent section containing a "patchwork quilt" of diamonds representing mountains; the diamonds themselves contain designs that reflect Russia's regions. Those who win gold medals on 15 February will receive special medals with fragments of the Chelyabinsk meteor, marking the one-year anniversary of the event where pieces of the cosmic body fell into the Chebarkul Lake in the Ural Mountains in central Russia.
In the following calendar each blue box represents one or more event competition(s), such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent medal-awarding finals for a sport with in each box the number of finals that were contested on that day.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Event finals||EG||Exhibition gala||CC||Closing ceremony|
|Short track speed skating||1||1||2||1||3||8|
More than 40,000 law enforcement officials will be deployed in securing the event and Police at the games will be able to converse with non-Russian speaking spectators and other guests in three languages: English, French and German. Russian Ground Forces commander Colonel-General Vladimir Chirkin said Russian Armed Forces will help ensure security during the preparations for and throughout the games.
A Presidential Decree signed by President Vladimir Putin, stipulates that all gatherings, protests, demonstrations, marches and pickets in Sochi and the surrounding area that are not part of the Olympics or Paralympics must obtain approval from the FSB (intelligence agency), police and local government. The restrictions will run from 7 January, a month before the Olympic opening ceremony, until 21 March, five days after the end of the Paralympics. Some estimated the decree could be used to bar protests over Russia's controversial homosexual propaganda laws, which has already provoked widespread international criticism. There could also be campaigns by representatives of the Muslim Circassian people, who lived in the area where Sochi now stands until their homeland was occupied by Russia in the 19th century and the majority were either expelled or killed.
Restrictions on movement in and around Sochi will be introduced from 7 January through 21 March, with "controlled" and "forbidden" zones, dubbed the "ring of steel" by the press. The controlled zones cover all Olympic venues and infrastructure, including the coastal Olympic Park and the mountain cluster of skiing facilities, as well as all transport hubs. The forbidden zones will include the border area separating Russia from neighboring Abkhazia, just a few kilometers east of Sochi, as well as the Sochi National Park, an environmentally protected area. The government has also tightened the mandatory registration system for Russian citizens visiting Sochi.
Internal Troops of the Ministry of Interior will have 10,000-strong force to provide security at Sochi Olympics. In mid January, some 1,500 Siberian Regional Command troops were sent to a military town near Krasnaya Polyana. Their duties primarily involve prevention of unauthorized access to sports facilities, residential areas, thoroughfares and bridges. Some of the forces will keep public order along with the police.
From 7 January, the country's Ministry of Emergency Situations (EMERCOM) forces that are engaged in the security measures at the Olympics in Sochi have been put on combat duty. In addition, emergency situations monitoring systems, including those from the outer space as well as medical laboratory control, were deployed according to Minister of Emergency Situations, Vladimir Puchkov. According to him, a firefighting and rescue unit, a modern horse and dog specialist center and other facilities have been commissioned ahead of the games.
In addition, over 400 Cossacks arrived in Sochi in early January to help the security forces. The Cossacks will accompany police patrols in full traditional uniform, which includes elaborate tunics, fur hats and swords. They were authorized by the law to check IDs and take suspects to police stations.
Airspace above the Olympic region will be guarded by an unmanned aerial vehicle squadron as well as S-400 and Pantsir-S1 air defense rockets. From the Black sea, Sochi will be protected by four counter-terror gunboats.
Several groups have threatened to attack the Sochi Olympics, the latest being a group that calls itself Vilayat Dagestan, which also claimed responsibility for the Volgograd bombings. They said the attacks were ordered by rebel leader Doku Umarov, who has also threatened to strike Sochi during the Olympics. In response to the possible threats, the U.S. ski and snowboard team has hired private security firm Global Rescue to protect its athletes in case of emergency. The British, German, Italian, Hungarian, Austrian, Slovenian and Slovakian Olympic associations received threats that athletes would be "blown up" or kidnapped by terrorists at the Winter Games. According to the IOC, the letters did not represent any real threat.
To enter railway stations and Olympic venues visitors must pass through check points equipped with x-ray machines, metal detectors and explosive material scanners manned by security forces.
U.S. President Barack Obama offered Russian President Putin security assistance. The Pentagon confirmed two ships and other assets at the ready in the Black Sea. On 31 January 2014, the USS Mount Whitney left its home port of Gaeta, Italy; it is the first of two US Navy ships that will be operating in the Black Sea during the games.
Panasonic supplying all the event’s video needs including broadcast equipment. The International Olympic Committee and Olympic Broadcasting Services will capture the upcoming 22nd Winter Games opening ceremony in 4K-Ultra HD. Both NTV Plus and Comcast plan to film portions of the Games in 4K resolution (UHDTV). Comcast plans to offer its content through smart TV apps, while NTV+ is planning to hold public and cinema viewings of the content. Russian broadcaster Channel One is among several rights holders using technology from Elemental to stream coverage of the Games. In a system delivered by Russian IT supplier Open Technologies, Elemental will process nine channels of Channel One Olympics programming over IP to multiple devices. During the Games, solutions from Elemental will stream Channel One live and time-shifted TV content in 12 Adobe HDS H.264 profiles to set-top boxes, computers, Android and iOS devices, and smart TVs.
In most regions, broadcast rights to the 2014 Winter Olympics were packaged together with broadcast rights for the 2016 Summer Olympics, but some broadcasters obtained rights to further games as well. Domestic broadcast rights were sold by Sportfive to a consortium of three Russian broadcasters; Channel One, VGTRK, and NTV Plus.
In Canada, after losing the 2010 and 2012 Games to CTV, the 2014 Winter Olympics will mark the return of the Olympics to CBC Television and French sister network Ici Radio-Canada Télé for the first time since 2008.
In Australia, after all three major commercial networks pulled out of bidding on rights to both the 2014 and 2016 Games due to cost concerns, the IOC awarded broadcast rights to just the 2014 Winter Olympics to Network Ten for AUD$20 million.
The following are the "Worldwide Olympic Partners":
The following are the "National Partners Sochi 2014":
Concerns and controversies
The lead-up to the Games were affected by numerous controversies and concerns; primarily centring around disputes with Circassian nationalists, who demanded that the events be cancelled or moved unless Russia apologises for the 19th-century deaths, which Circassians regard to be a genocide; environmental and economic issues; and the safety and human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) athletes, supporters and journalists.
President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden of the United States are not planning to attend the 2014 Winter Olympics, joining Canadian PM Stephen Harper, French President François Hollande and some other western leaders. Although they denied that their decision not to travel to Sochi was a political statement aimed against Russian policies, there is speculation it might be an symbolic boycott over Russia's treatment of LGBT people. In a 2013 news story, the Financial Times reported, "... Sochi boycott, when no one boycotted the Beijing Olympics, could reinforce the Kremlin narrative that the West seeks constantly to undermine Russia. Far from driving a wedge between Mr Putin and Russians, it might consolidate his support among the majority." Putin later said homosexuals should feel welcome at the games. Since June 2013, protests have occurred involving the country's ban on the promotion of LGBT relationships to minors, with athletes emphasizing Principle Six of the Olympic Charter, which states that "Any form of discrimination with regard to a country or a person on grounds of race, religion, politics, gender or otherwise is incompatible with belonging to the Olympic Movement."
While most Olympic Games have high cost overruns, for these Games they are much higher than usual, with the costs being more than all the previous 21 Winter Olympics combined. Allison Stewart of the Saïd Business School at Oxford, notes that relations between the government and construction companies appear closer in Sochi than in other games. Oligarch Arkady Rotenberg has won contracts worth $7.4 billion.
According to an article in The Daily Telegraph, Prince Bandar bin Sultan, head of Saudi intelligence, allegedly confronted the Kremlin with a mix of inducements and threats in a bid to break the deadlock over Syria, including the security of the Winter Olympics in Sochi if there is no accord. He allegedly said “I can give you a guarantee to protect the Winter Olympics next year. The Chechen groups that threaten the security of the games are controlled by us". Three suicide bombings in Volgograd, 700 kilometres from Sochi, one in October 2013 and the two others in December 2013, have raised additional international concerns about security during the Olympics. The IOC expressed sympathy for the victims and underlined that they trusted that Russia's security arrangements for the Olympics would be adequate. Vilayat Dagestan then again threatened the games saying that Putin should expect a "present."
Notes and references
- ↑ "Sochi 2014 Reveals its Slogan". Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Games Organizing Committee. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- ↑ "Sochi Elected as Host City of XXII Olympic Winter Games, International Olympic Committee". Olympic.org. 4 July 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- ↑ Oliphant, Roland (30 October 2013). "Sochi: chaos behind the scenes of world's most expensive Winter Olympics". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- ↑ Owen Gibson (9 October 2013). "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- ↑ Interfax
- ↑ "Sochi 2014 Confirms Ability to Self-finance in 2009–10". Sochi2014.com. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- ↑ "2014 Winter Olympics Create New Opportunities for U.S. Ag Exporters", from Alla Putiy & Erik W. Hansen
- ↑ "Sochi 2014 Expects $300 Million Surplus". Gamesbids.com. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- ↑ Experts analyzed which industries are most interested in Sochi Olympics Rosbalt.biz, 6 July 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ Vancouver Olympics: Embarrassed Russia looks to 2014 Sochi Olympics The Christian Science Monitor, 1 March 2010
- ↑ Rio Golf Course; Women's World Cup; IOC Nominee for Japan? – No Smoking in Sochi Around the Rings, 14 July 2011
- ↑ "Sochi's mixed feelings over Olympics". BBC News. 26 November 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- ↑ Russian Deputy PM leads Sochi delegation to inspect Munich Olympic Park Inside the Games, 22 May 2010
- ↑ Посмотрели свысока Yugopolis, 16 July 2013
- ↑ «Fisht» Olympic Stadium Sochi 2014; Accessed 31 December 2010
- ↑ Korsunskaya, Darya; Gennady Fydorov, Alan Baldwin (14 October 2010). "Sochi to host Russian GP from 2014–2020". Reuters. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- ↑ "IOC threatens to postpone Russian Grand Prix". GP Update. 13 January 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 "Behind Sochi's Futuristic Logo". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- ↑ "Russian public to vote for Sochi 2014 mascot". InsideTheGames.biz. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- ↑ "Sochi 2014 chooses three mascots for Olympics as Father Christmas withdraws in row over property rights". InsideTheGames.biz. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 "Mock mascot loses Olympic race, wins bloggers’ hearts". Russia Today. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- ↑ "Mock mascot Zoich masterminded by Sochi 2014 organizers". Russia Today. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- ↑ "Mario & Sonic at the Sochi Winter Games & 3rd Sonic Nintendo Exclusive Revealed". Anime News Network.
- ↑ Russia prepares for Olympic Games 2014 faster than scheduled ITAR-TASS, 27 June 2009
- ↑ IOC Head Praises Sochi 2014 GamesBids.com, 24 November 2011
- ↑ by Bing Ads (23 April 2013). "Avaya Official supplyer of network equipment". Slideshare.net. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- ↑ "US firm Avaya named as Sochi 2014 network equipment supplier". Insidethegames.biz. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- ↑ "Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games". Avaya. 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- ↑ James Careless (December 2013). "Avaya builds massive Wi-Fi net for 2014 Winter Olympics". Network World.
- ↑ Сочи-2014 выходит на связь Открытые системы, 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ "Инновационное олимпийское телевизионное оборудование впервые в Сочи". Broadcasting.ru. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- ↑ Fiber-optic communications in Olympic Sochi Mayak Radio, 28 March 2008 (Russian)
- ↑ ""МИР ИТ" приютил олимпийскую ВОЛС". comnews.ru. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- ↑ ""МегаФон" начал предоставлять ВГТРК свои сети доставки контента для интернет-трансляции Олимпийских игр". comnews.ru. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- ↑ "Сотовые операторы и Минкомсвязи РФ организовали межсетевой роуминг для гостей Олимпийских игр в Сочи". comnews.ru. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- ↑ ""Ростелеком" успел на Олимпиаду". comnews.ru. 7 February 2014.
- ↑ "РТРС готовится к цифровой эфирной телевизионной трансляции в Сочи во время Олимпийских игр". RTRS official website. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- ↑ "Rostelecom completes Sochi Olympics telecom infrastructure". ITAR TASS. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- ↑ ""Ростелеком" обеспечил телекоммуникационными услугами олимпийский медиацентр в Сочи". TASS-TELECOM. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- ↑ "Olympics' press center and Mountain Cluster's media center open in Sochi". ITAR-TASS. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- ↑ Games 2014 Will Double Sochi Power Supply Sochi 2014, 29 May 2009
- ↑ Gazprom launches construction of Adler CHPS Gazprom, 28 September 2009
- ↑ The power capacities of the Sochi region will increase before the Olympics by a factor of four RBC, 6 July 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ "Putin instructs energy minister to take Sochi's energy system under strict control". ITAR TASS. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 "Sochi welcomes 2014 Winter Olympics with traditional Russian hospitality". En.itar-tass.com. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
- ↑ Sochi opens new rail line for 2014 Winter Olympics Inside the Games, 17 February 2012
- ↑ Siemens signs Russian Olympic train order Railway Gazette International, 1 January 2010
- ↑ Expensive road to the Olympics Gudok, 22 August 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ Runway in Sochi airport will cross the river YuGA.ru, 8 July 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ Russia to build 3 reserve airports in country's south by 2009 RIA Novosti, 7 July 2007
- ↑ Offshore terminal will be built at the Sochi sea port KM.ru, 7 July 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ Sochi authorities close the entrance to the city DP.RU, 8 October 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ Russian Railways started mountain tunnel complex construction from Sochi to Krasnaya Polyana Interfax, 27 May 2009 (Russian)
- ↑ "Russian Railways President Yakunin sums up investment programme for first 7 months of 2011". Russian Railways. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- ↑ "New 5-minute-interval buses are launched in Sochi for Olympics". ITAR-TASS. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- ↑ Sochi is not a place for recreation Gazeta.ru, 5 July 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ Construction of the first olympic hotel starts in Sochi RIA Novosti, 7 August 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ Russia will get new lands before the Olympics DP.RU, 18 September 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ Arabians will own 70% of the island in Sochi DP.RU, 24 September 2007 (Russian)
- ↑ Minister of Natural Resources held a meeting on design and construction of sewage treatment facilities in preparation for 2014 Olympics in Sochi Press Service of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russian Federation, 13 July 2009 (Russian)
- ↑ "Гости Олимпиады смогут отправить написанное пером письмо, оплатив почтовые услуги маркой с собственной фотографией". TASS Telecom. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- ↑ "Russia anti-gay law casts a shadow over Sochi's 2014 Olympics". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- ↑ "Soyuz TMA-09M safely returns crew back to Earth". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- ↑ 9. listopadu 2013 17:51. "Kosmonauti si poprvé ve volném vesmíru předali olympijskou pochodeň". Technet.idnes.cz. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- ↑ Loumena, Dan (23 November 2013). "Sochi Olympic torch takes plunge into world's deepest lake". Latimes.com. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- ↑ "Record 88 nations to participate in Winter Games". Global News (Sochi, Russia). Associated Press. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- ↑ MacKenzie, Eric (16 January 2014). "Sochi Spotlight: Zimbabwe's first Winter Olympian". Pique Newsmagazine (Whistler, British Columbia, Canada). Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- ↑ Pagan Rivera, Esteban (12 January 2014). "Kristina Krone: Quería ir a Sochi, pero nunca recibió contestación del Comité Olímpico". Primerahora (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- ↑ "Sascoc crush Speelman's Olympic dream". http://www.iol.co.za/. IOL Sport. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- ↑ Dubault, Fabrice (24 January 2014). "L'histoire invraisemblable de Mehdi Khelifi privé de J.O par l'Algérie". France 3. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- ↑ "Sochi Games: Four Indian skiers to go as independent athletes". Zee news. 31 December 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
- ↑ "National Olympic Houses". tripadvisor. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 73.2 73.3 73.4 "Olympic Parc; Hospitality Houses". sochi2014.com. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- ↑ "Opening Canada House". CBC. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014. (Dutch)
- ↑ "Dossier de presse Sotchi 201". http://espritbleu.franceolympique.com. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014. (French)
- ↑ "Deutsches Haus Sotschi 2014 in Russlands Bergen". DOSB. 25 April 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- ↑ "Holland Heineken House dichter bij olympiërs dan ooit". nusport.nl. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014. (Dutch)
- ↑ "Slovak athletes set for Sochi". The Slovak Spectator. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- ↑ "USOC plans USA House sites in Sochi, at home". sportsbusinessdaily.com. 21 October 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- ↑ "Discover the twelve new winter sports events for Sochi 2014!". Olympic.org. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- ↑ 81.0 81.1 "Rogge announces three new disciplines for Sochi 2014". Russia Today. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- ↑ Women's ski jumping gets 2014 Sochi Olympics go-ahead BBC Sport, 6 April 2011
- ↑ Slopestyle given Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics go-ahead BBC Sport, 5 July 2011
- ↑ "FIS Congress 2010 Decisions". FIS-Ski. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- ↑ "Russian ice hockey will be skating in Sochi". Infox.ru. AktivMedia. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- ↑ It's Not Hockey, It's Bandy New York Times, 29 January 2010
- ↑ No time to relax! The show must go on...again! Eastbourne Herald, 9 March 2010
- ↑ 88.0 88.1 "Olympic Programme Updates". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. 28 November 2006. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- ↑ "No Olympics for Ski Mountaineering". The Mountain World. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- ↑ "No inclusion of ski orienteering in the IOC review process for 2014". International Orienteering Federation. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
- ↑ "Sochi 2014 Unveils Olympic Medals". Olympic.org. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- ↑ "Winners at Sochi Winter Olympics to receive pieces of Russia meteorite". The Telegraph. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- ↑ "Competition Schedule". SOCOG. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
- ↑ "Russian Police to Speak 3 Languages at Sochi Olympics - Ministry". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- ↑ "Russian Military to Ensure Security at 2014 Olympics". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- ↑ 96.0 96.1 "Sochi Olympic Protests to Require Approval from Russia's Security Service". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- ↑ "The shambles behind the scenes at Sochi". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- ↑ "Internal Troops to provide security at Sochi Olympics". Russia Beyond the Headlines. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- ↑ "Siberia joins national effort to make the Sochi Olympics safe and successful". Siberia Times. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- ↑ "Space monitoring systems of emergency situations deployed in Sochi". ITAR TASS. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- ↑ "Russian emergencies minister praises Sochi security system". ITAR TASS. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- ↑ "Sochi Drafts In Cossacks for Olympic Security". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- ↑ "Some 300 Cossacks to Help Police Sochi Olympics". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- ↑ "Russia takes unprecedented security measures ahead of Sochi Olympics". ITAR TASS. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- ↑ 105.0 105.1 "Olympic Teams Prepare for Possible Security Crisis in Sochi". The Moscow Times. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- ↑ "Winter Olympics 2014: email threat to 'blow up' athletes at Sochi Games dismissed by IOC". Telegraph. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- ↑ "European Olympic Committees Report Sochi Terror Threats". En.ria.ru. 2014-01-22. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
- ↑ "Sochi Olympic organisers face accommodation crisis". Telegraph. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- ↑ "Obama offers US security assistance to Putin as Olympic terror fears mount". Foxnews.com. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- ↑ Forrester, Chris (2014-01-29). "Winter Olympics opening will be in 4K". Advanced-television.com. Retrieved 2014-02-07.
- ↑ "Comcast to Produce Olympics 2014 in Ultra HD". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- ↑ "Russia to transmit 4K from Sochi". TVBEurope. NewBay Media. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- ↑ "Putin cancels New Year holidays for officials responsible for Winter Games". ITAR-TASS. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- ↑ Sochi Games to Set Record for Live and VOD Streaming
- ↑ Love, Tom (3 September 2012). "Sportfive concludes Olympic agreement in Russia". SportsPro. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- ↑ "Lazarus: We Believe Sochi Olympics Will Be Profitable". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- ↑ "CBC wins rights to 2014, 2016 Olympic Games". CBC Sports. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- ↑ "Olympic fury over rules for TV sport". The Australian. 7 April 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- ↑ "Seven withdraws from bidding for Olympics as price tag proves too great for TV networks". Fox Sports. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- ↑ MacKay, Duncan (12 May 2013). "Ten Network signs $20 million deal to broadcast Sochi 2014 in Australia, claim reports". Inside the Games. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- ↑ "Partners".
- ↑ Russian Olympics clouded by 19th century deaths. Reuters. 21 March 2010
- ↑ Johnson, Ted (24 July 2013). "Russia's Anti-Gay Laws Present Challenge for NBC's Olympics Coverage". Variety. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- ↑ Fierstein, Harvey (21 July 2013). "Russia's Anti-Gay Crackdown". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- ↑ "President Obama joins list of world leaders to snub Sochi Olympics". Salon. 18 December 2013.
- ↑ "Putin Plays Games to Salvage Olympics". Bloomberg.com. 19 December 2013.
- ↑ By Rfe/Rl (21 December 2013). "Obama Backs Gays In U.S. Sochi Delegation". Rferl.org. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- ↑ "Boycott of Sochi Olympics may prove counterproductive". The Financial Times. 9 August 2013.
- ↑ "Putin says gays should feel welcome at Sochi - Europe". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- ↑ "Nesting-doll set to raise awareness of Russian LGBT controversy". Digitaljournal.com. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- ↑ "Olympic Charter" (PDF). 9 September 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- ↑ Bennetts, Marc (19 January 2014). "Winter Olympics 2014: Sochi Games "nothing but a monstrous scam," says Kremlin critic Boris Nemtsov". Telegraph. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
- ↑ 133.0 133.1 "The Sochi Olympics: Castles in the sand". The Economist. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- ↑ "Saudis offer Russia secret oil deal if it drops Syria". The Daily Telegraph. 27 August 2013.
- ↑ "Russia Bombings Kill 31, Raise Concern On Olympics". NPR. Associated Press. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- ↑ Heritage, Timothy (20 January 2014). "Militant Islamist video threatens Winter Olympics". Reuters. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Games.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2014 Winter Olympics.|
- Sochi 2014 (Russian) (English) (French)
- 2014 Winter Olympics on Facebook
- Sochi 2014 (IOC)
- Olimpstroy state corporation
- Galina Masterova Sochi: an Olympic makeover Russia Now, 23 February 2010
- Sochi (Google satellite image, latitude: 43.404, longitude: 39.953)
- Open Directory Project: Sochi 2014 Directory of links for the games.
XXII Olympic Winter Games (2014)
| Succeeded by|